Parading Memory and Re-member-ing Conflict: Collective Memory in Transition in Northern Ireland

Article

Abstract

In Northern Ireland, parades have long been important carriers of politico-cultural identities and collective memories, as well as arenas of struggle and conflict. Taking as its starting point that these contests over meaning are always framed by their contexts of articulation both in temporal and spatial terms, this article examines the role of parades in the current ‘post-conflict’ phase of the peace process as it plays out in a particular location, namely North Belfast. Using theories of cultural and collective memory and examples from republican and loyalist parades in North Belfast, it is argued that there is fear of memory and identity collapse in particular communities on the margins of the peace process, leading to a conscious doubling of efforts to (re)articulate the hidden recesses of memory in the current transition. In this, the patterns of ‘competitive commemoration’ in parades should be understood both horizontally: as majority memory traditions move to minority memory positions, and vertically: in relation to the increasing dissonance between vernacular practices of conflict and the official post-conflict discourses in Northern Ireland. Central to these arguments is the recognition that parading traditions are at once presentist, competitive instruments and also emotional and embodied practices to ensure the continuity of identity. It follows that both dimensions must be recognised together, if cognitive and visceral templates of conflict are to be explained and shifted. This article applies a wide-angle memory studies lens to capture the two together and explore the changing parade-scape.

Keywords

Collective memory Parades Northern Ireland Place Conflict Transition 

References

  1. Abou Assi, E. (2010). Collective memory and management of the past: the entrepreneurs of civil war memory in post-war Lebanon. International Social Science Journal, 61(202), 399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Appadurai, A. (1990). Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy. Theory, Culture & Society, 7(2), 295–310. doi:10.1177/026327690007002017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashe, F. (2006). Gendering the Holy Cross school dispute: women and nationalism in Northern Ireland. Political Studies, 54(1), 147–164. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.2006.00570.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashe, F., Ashe, F., & Harland, K. (2014). Troubling masculinities: changing patterns of violent masculinities in a society emerging from political conflict. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 37, 747–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Asmal, K., Asmal, L., & Roberts, R. S. (1996). Reconciliation through truth: a reckoning of Apartheid’s criminal governance. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers. Hentet fra http://www.abebooks.co.uk/9780864863249/Reconciliation-Truth-Reckoning-Apartheids-Criminal-0864863241/plp.Google Scholar
  7. Assmann, A. (2008). Memory, individual and collective. In I. C. Tilly (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of contextual political analysis. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Assmann, J. (2010). Communicative and cultural memory. In I. A. Erll & A. Nünning (Eds.), Cultural memory studies: an international and interdisciplinary handbook. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  9. Bar-Tal, D. (1997). Formation and change of ethnic and national stereotypes: an integrative model. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 21(4), 491–523. doi:10.1016/S0147-1767(97)00022-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies. London: Paladin Books (A. Lavers, Overs.).Google Scholar
  11. Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: a study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bastian, J. A. (2013). The records of memory, the archives of identity: celebrations, texts and archival sensibilities. Archival Science, 13(2), 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. BBC. (2013). West Belfast “second highest for UK in child poverty” 20 February 3013 http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-21506734
  14. Bergson, H. (2002). Matter and memory. New York: Zone Books.Google Scholar
  15. Bodnar, J. (2011). In I. J. K. Olick, V. Vinitzky-Seroussi, & D. Levy (Eds.), The collective memory reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Boym, S. (2001). The Future of Nostalgia. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Brown, W. (2001). Politics out of history. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Bryan, D. (1998). Ireland’s very own Jurassic Park: the mass media, orange parades and the discourse on tradition. In I. A. D. Buckley (Ed.), Symbols in Northern Ireland. Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies.Google Scholar
  19. Bryan, D. (1999). The right to march: parading a loyal protestant identity in Northern Ireland. In I. T. Allen & J. Eade (Eds.), Divided Europeans: understanding ethnicities in conflict. Hague ; Boston: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  20. Bryan, D. (2006). «Traditional» parades, conflict and change: Orange parades and other rituals in Northern Ireland, 1960-2000. In I. J. Neuheiser & M. Schaich (Eds.), Political rituals in Great Britain 1700-2000 (auflage: 1.). Augsburg: Wißner-Verlag.Google Scholar
  21. Burton, F. (1978). The politics of legitimacy: struggles in a Belfast community. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Byrne, J., McDowell, S., Braniff, M. (2012). Violence, space and memory in the new Northern Ireland. Hentet 29. August 2014, fra https://www.opendemocracy.net/opensecurity/maire-braniff-sara-mcdowell-jonny-byrne/violence-space-and-memory-in-new-northern-irela
  23. Cairns, E., & Roe, M. D. (2003). In S. Dunn, V. Morgan, S. Dunn, & V. Morgan (Eds.), The role of memory in ethnic conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, S. (2007). Winning while losing: the apprentice boys of Derry walk their beat. Political Geography, 26(8), 951–967. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.10.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Collins, R. (2009). Micro and macro causes of violence. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 3(1), 9–22.Google Scholar
  26. Connerton, P. (1989). How societies remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawson, G. (2007). Making peace with the past?: memories, trauma and the Irish troubles. New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  28. De Rosa, C. (1998). Playing nationalism. In I. A. D. Buckley (Ed.), Symbols in Northern Ireland. Belfast: The Institute of Irish Studies.Google Scholar
  29. Durkheim, É. (1965). The elementary forms of the religious life. London: Free Press.Google Scholar
  30. Edwards, R. (1999). The faithful tribe. London: HarperCollins Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Erll, A., & Nünning, A. (2010). Cultural memory studies: an international and interdisciplinary handbook. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  32. Farrell, S. (2000). Rituals and riots: sectarian violence and political culture in Ulster, 1784-1886. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.Google Scholar
  33. Fisher, R., & Keashly, L. (1991). The potential complementarity of mediation and consultation within a contingency model of third party intervention. Journal of Peace Research, 28, 29–42. doi:10.1177/0022343391028001005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Giddens, A. (1991). The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  35. Giesen, B. (2004). Triumph and trauma. Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm.Google Scholar
  36. Grimes, R. L., Husken, U., Simon, U., & Venbrux, E. (2011). Ritual, media, and conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Halbwachs, M. (1992). On collective memory. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  38. Hamilton, M., & Bryan, D. (2006). Mediation and the law: the parades commission in Northern Ireland. Ohio State University Journal of Peace Studies, 22(1), 133–187.Google Scholar
  39. Haugbolle, S. (2010). War and memory in Lebanon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hillyard, P., McWilliams, M. & Ward, M. (2006) Northern Ireland gender audit. Re-imagining women’s security: a comparative study of South Africa, Northern Ireland and Lebanon. Queens University Belfast.Google Scholar
  41. Hobsbawm, E., & Ranger, T. (1983). The invention of tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Holyfield, L., & Beacham, C. (2011). Memory brokers, shameful pasts, and civil war commemoration. Journal of Black Studies, 42(3), 436–456. doi:10.1177/0021934710378746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Horowitz, D. L. (2001). Ethnic groups in conflict, updated edition with a new preface. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jarman, N. (2003). From outrage to apathy? The disputes over parades, 1995–2003. The Global Review of Ethnopolitics, 3(1), 92–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jarman, N. (1997). Material Conflicts: Parades and Visual Displays in Northern Ireland. Oxford: Berg Publishers.Google Scholar
  46. Jarman, N. & Bryan, D. (1998). From Riots to Rights. Centre for the Study of Conflict: University of Ulster.Google Scholar
  47. Jarman, N., Raillings, M.-K., & Bell, J. (2009). Local accommodation: effective practice in responding to disputes over parades. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research.Google Scholar
  48. Judt, T. (2008). Reappraisals: reflections on the forgotten twentieth century (Reprintth ed.). New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  49. Kaufmann, E. P. (2007). The Orange Order: a contemporary Northern Irish history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Loughlin, J. (2000). Parades and politics: liberal governments and the Orange Order 1880-86. In T. G. Fraser (Ed.), The Irish parading tradition. London: Macmillan Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  51. Mann, M. (2005). The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. McBride, I. (2001). Introduction: memory and national identity in modern Ireland. In I. McBride (Ed.), History and memory in modern Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. McCall, C. (2006). From ‘long war’ to ‘war of the lillies’: ‘post-conflit’ territorial compromise and the return of cultural politics. In M. Cox, A. Guelke, F. Stephen (Eds) A Farewell to Arms? Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  54. McCrone, D. (1998). The sociology of nationalism. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McDowell, S. (2009). Memory. In I. R. Kitchin (Ed.), International encyclopedia of human geography (Vol. 7, pp. 59–63). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McDowell, S., & Braniff, M. (2014). Commemoration as conflict: space, memory and identity in peace processes. New York/Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Meyer, E. (2010). Memory and politics. In I. A. Erll & A. Nünning (Eds.), A companion to cultural memory studies. New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  58. Misztal, B. (2003). Theories of social remembering. New York: McGraw-Hill International.Google Scholar
  59. Morrison, D. (2007). Has August 9th passed?—internment over. Hentet 29. August 2014, fra http://www.dannymorrison.com/wp-content/dannymorrisonarchive/119.htm
  60. Nolan, P. (2014). The Northern Ireland Peace Monitoring Report III. Belfast: Community Relations CouncilGoogle Scholar
  61. Nora, P. (1989). Between memory and history: Les lieux de mémoire. Representations, 26, 7–24. doi:10.2307/2928520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Olick, J. (1999). Collective Memory: The Two Cultures. Sociological Theory, 17 (3), 333–48.Google Scholar
  63. Olick, J. K., Vinitzky-Seroussi, V., & Levy, D. (2011). The collective memory reader. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Osborne, P. (2013) ‘Facts not Hype on Numbers of Parades’ - Says Parades Chairman Peter Osborne  http://eamonnmallie.com/2013/11/facts-not-hype-on-numbers-of-parades-says-parades-chairman-peter-osborne/
  65. Parades Commission (2014) Annual Report and Financial Statements for the year ended 31 March 2014. HMSO.Google Scholar
  66. Pollak, M. (2000). L’Expérience concentrationnaire, essai sur le maintien de l’identité sociale. Paris: Métailié.Google Scholar
  67. Purdie, B. (1990). Politics in the streets. Belfast: Blackstaff Press.Google Scholar
  68. Racioppi, L., & O’Sullivan See, K. (2000). Ulstermen and loyalist ladies on parade: gendering unionism in Northern Ireland. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 2(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Reading, A. (2011). Identity, memory and cosmopolitanism: the otherness of the past and a right to memory? European Journal of Cultural Studies, 14(4), 379–394. doi:10.1177/1367549411411607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. RNU: Republican Network for Unity. (2013). RNU self disperse Henry Joy march. No back door for Republicanism. Hentet 29. August 2014, fra http://www.republicanunity.org/rnu-self-disperse-henry-joy-march-no-back-door-for-republicanism/
  71. Roudometof, V. (2002). Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict. Greenwood: Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  72. Schetter, C. (2005). Ethnoscapes, national territorialisation, and the Afghan War. Geopolitics, 10(1), 50–75. doi:10.1080/14650040590907712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sennett, R. (1998). Disturbing memories. In I. P. Fara & K. Patterson (Eds.), Memory. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Shirlow, P., & Murtagh, B. (2006). Belfast: segregation, violence and the city. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  75. Smith, A. D. (1999). Myths and memories of the nation (Vol. 288). Oxford: Oxford University Press Oxford.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, A. D. (1986). The ethnic origins of nations. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  77. Taylor, R. (2009). Consociational theory: McGarry and O’Leary and the Northern Ireland conflict. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  78. Trigg, D. (2012). The memory of place: a phenomenology of the uncanny. Ohio: Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Vansina, J. M. (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  80. Vigh, H. (Forthcoming) The other side of power loyalism and the politics of fear.Google Scholar
  81. White, H. (1984). The question of narrative in contemporary historical theory. History and Theory, 23(1), 1–33. doi:10.2307/2504969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zerubavel, Y. (1995). Recovered roots: collective memory and the making of Israeli national tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Communication and CultureAarhus UniversityÅrhus CDenmark

Personalised recommendations