Advertisement

Taking Murals Seriously: Basque Murals and Mobilisation

  • Bill RolstonEmail author
  • Amaia Alvarez Berastegi
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to take the admonition of taking the visual seriously into the realms of murals. It will present empirical data on contemporary murals in the Basque Country with a view to examining why murals are important to the abertzale-left, the broad left-wing nationalist movement in the Basque Country which includes but ranges far beyond the armed group ETA. The struggle for Basque autonomy from Spain has its roots in a nationalist awakening in the late twentieth century. It has developed through the struggle with fascism; the prolonged authoritarian, centralist state; and the transition to democracy after the death of Franco. Central to this development has been the definition of Basque identity in terms of culture rather than birth. Language has been key, but there has also been a visual strand to the struggle. The article will examine the state of that visual strand currently by examining murals on a range of themes: language and culture, independence and socialism, armed struggle, political prisoners, torture and repression, martyrs and heroes, women and environmental issues.

Keywords

Political murals Basque Country Abertzale-left Social movement Mobilization ETA 

References

  1. Abushagur, S. (2011) The art of uprising: the Libyan revolution in graffiti. Author.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, J. (2001). The makings of political art. Qualitative Sociology 24(3), 311–348.Google Scholar
  3. Alonso, R. (2004). Pathways out of terrorism in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country: the misrepresentation of the Irish model. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16(4), 695–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amnesty International. (2009). Spain: adding insult to injury. Police impunity two years on. London: Amnesty International.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  6. Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, R., & Rechea-Alberola, C. (2006). Violent youth groups in Spain. Young: Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 14(4), 323–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bassets, L. (1983). Clandestine communications: notes on the press and propaganda of the anti-Franco resistance, 1939–1975. In A. Mattelart & S. Siegelaub (Eds.), Communication and class struggle, vol. 2. Liberation, socialism (pp. 192–200). New York/Bagnelot: International General/International Mass Media Research Center.Google Scholar
  8. Beck, J. (2006). Geopolitical Imaginations of the Basque Homeland. Geopolitics, 11, 507–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benford, R., & Snow, D. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: an overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bengoetxea, J. R. (2013). Transitional justice versus traditional justice: the Basque case. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 12(2), 30–58.Google Scholar
  11. Bew, J., Frampton, M., & Gurruchaga, I. (2009). Talking to terrorists: making peace in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
  12. Blasi, P. (2009) Patxi López promete acabar con el 'muro de la vergüenza' en Mondragón, 8 March, El Mundo. http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2009/03/07/paisvasco/1236427285.html.
  13. Bray, Z. (2006). Basque militant youths in France: new experiences of ethnonational identity in the European context. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 12, 533–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bullain, I. (2011). Revolucionarismo Patriótico: El Movimiento De Liberación Nacional Vasco (MLNV). Tecnos.Google Scholar
  15. Calvente, L., & García, G. (2014). The city speaks. Cultural Studies 28(3), 438–462.Google Scholar
  16. Carmena, M., Landa, J. M., Múgica, R., & Uriarte, J. (2013). Base report on human rights violations in the Basque country case (1960–2013). Vitoria Gasteiz: Office of the Secretariat General for Peace and Social Harmony.Google Scholar
  17. Casquete, J. (2003). From imagination to visualization: protest rituals in the Basque Country. Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.Google Scholar
  18. Chaffee, L. (1988). Social conflict and alternative mass communications: public art and politics in the service of Spanish-Basque nationalism. European Journal of Political Research, 16(5), 545–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaffee, L. (1993). Political protest and street art: popular tools for democratization in Hispanic countries. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  20. Chehabi, H. E., & Christia, F. (2008). The art of state persuasion: Iran’s post-revolutionary murals. Persica, 22, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chesters, G., & Welsh, I. (2004). Rebel colours: ‘framing’ in global social movements. Sociological Review, 52(3), 314–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chiumbu, S. (2012). Exploring mobile phone practices in social movements in South Africa: the Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign. African Identities, 10(2), 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davant, J. L. (1997). Lore Jokoeningurumenaz, Soziolinguistikaaldizkaria, 25.Google Scholar
  24. Doerr, N., Mattoni, A., & Teune, S. (2013). Toward a visual analysis of social movements, conflict and political mobilization. In N. Doerr, A. Mattoni, & S. Teune (Eds.), Advances in the visual analysis of social movements. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing. xi–xxvi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doerr, N. and Teune, S. (2008) Visual codes in movement: when the protest imagery hits the establishment. http://protestkuriosa.files.wordpress.com/2008/05/doerr-teune.pdf.
  26. Dorfman, A. (1978). The invisible Chile: three years of cultural resistance. Praxis, 4, 191–197.Google Scholar
  27. Douglass, W., & Zulaika, J. (1990). On the interpretation of terrorist violence: ETA and the Basque political process. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 32(2), 238–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. El País. (1987) Un disparo atravesó la cabeza de Lucía Urigoitia, según la Guardia Civil., 27 July.Google Scholar
  29. Emmison, M., Smith, P., & Mayall, M. (2012). Preface. In M. Emmison et al. (Eds.), Researching the visual. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eyerman, R., & Jamison, A. (1998). Music and social movements. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Espinosa, P. and Lopez, E. (2013). Hertzainak. La Confesion Radical. Pepitas De Calabaza Editorial.Google Scholar
  33. Franco, J. (1970). The modern culture of Latin America, society and the artist. Baltimore: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  34. Gibbons, S. (2004). The costs of urban property crime. The Economic Journal, 114(499), F441–F463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gröndahl, M. (2013). Revolution graffiti: street art of the new Egypt. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  36. Goicoechea, E. (1984). Cuadrillas en el Pais Vasco: Identidad Local y Revitalizacion etnica. Reis, 25, 213–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goodnow, T. (2006). On black panthers, blue ribbons and peace signs: the function of symbols in social campaigns. Visual Communication Quarterly 13(3), 166–179.Google Scholar
  38. Hamilton, C. (2007a). The gender politics of political violence: women armed activists in ETA. Feminist Review, 86, 132–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hamilton, C. (2007). Women and ETA: the gender politics of radical Basque nationalism. Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Hobsbawm, E., & Ranger, T. (Eds.). (1983). The invention of tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Howard, P., & Hussain, M. (2013). Democracy’s fourth wave? Digital media and the Arab Spring. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kasmir, S. (2002). ‘More Basque than you!’ Class, youth and identity in an industrial Basque town. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 9(1), 39–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khatib, L. (2013). Image politics in the Middle East: the role of the visual in political struggle. London: I.B. Tauris.Google Scholar
  44. Kopper, A. (2014). Why guernica became a globally used icon of political protest? Analysis of its visual rhetoric and capacity to link distinct events of protests into a grand narrative. International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society, 27, 443–457.Google Scholar
  45. Kunzle, D. (1973). Art in Chile’s revolutionary process: guerrilla muralist brigades. New World Review, 41(3), 42–53.Google Scholar
  46. Kunzle, D. (1975). Public graphics in Cuba. Latin American Perspectives 2, 1975: 100.Google Scholar
  47. Lahusen, C. (1993). The aesthetic of radicalism: the relationship between punk and the patriotic nationalist movement of the Basque country. Popular Music, 12(3), 263–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leone, S. (2008). Euskal Herri Imaginario Baten Alde. Donostia: Elkar.Google Scholar
  49. Mac Gall, C. (2013), Treatment of Basque political prisoners and their families—a catalogue of abuse of human and civil rights, http://www.indymedia.ie/article/103425.
  50. Martínez-Herrara, E. (2002). Nationalist extremism and outcomes of state policies in the Basque Country, 1979–2001. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 4(1), 16–40.Google Scholar
  51. Mattoni, A., & Teune, S. (2014). Visions of protest: a media-historic perspective on images in social movements. Sociology Compass 8(6), 876–887.Google Scholar
  52. Matusitz, J. (2014). Symbolism in terrorism: motivation, communication, and behavior. Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  53. Mohl, E. (2011). Zapatista signs of the times—Chiapas, Mexico. http://trans-americas.com/blog/2011/06/zapatista-signs-chiapas/.
  54. Musleh, M. (2010). Taking back Palestine’s streets: exclusive interview with underground Jerusalem graffiti artist. The Electronic Intifada 29 August.Google Scholar
  55. Olesen, T. (2013). 'We are all Khaled Said': visual injustice symbols in the Egyptian revolution. In N. Doerr et al. (Eds.), Advances in the visual analysis of social movements (pp. 3–25). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Philipps, A. (2012). Visual protest material as empirical data. Visual Communication, 11(1), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prieto, J. (1993). El Imaginario vasco: representaciones de una conciencia histórica, nacional y política en el escenario europeo, 1833–1876. Ediciones Internacionales Universitarias.Google Scholar
  58. Ransome, A. (2004). The crisis in Russia. Charleston, South Carolina: Booksurge Classics (originally published 1920).Google Scholar
  59. Rolston, B. (1991). Politics and painting: murals and conflict in Northern Ireland. Cranbury: Associated University PressesGoogle Scholar
  60. Sánchez, M. (2006). Los Murales Efímeros de la Guerra Civil Española y su Relación con México. Crónicas: El muralismo, producto de la revolución mexicana, en América, México, UNAM-IIE, No. 12.Google Scholar
  61. Sánchez-Cuenca, I. (2008). The persistence of nationalist terrorism: the case of ETA, chapter prepared for Mulaj, K. (ed) Violent non-state actors in contemporary world politics.http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/pdf/ETA%20%28Kledja%29.pdf.
  62. Sawer, M. (2007). Wearing your politics on your sleeve: the role of political colours in social movements. Social Movement Studies, 6(1), 39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Siqueiros, D. (1975). Art and revolution (pp. 123–129). London: Lawrence and Wishart.Google Scholar
  64. Stermer, D. (1970). The art of revolution. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  65. Schmitt, P. (2009). Advertised to death: Lebanese poster boys. Lebanon: Author.Google Scholar
  66. Tejerina, B. (2001). Protest cycle, political violence and social movements in the Basque Country. Nations and Nationalism, 7(1), 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Urla, J. (1995). Outlaw language: creating alternative public spheres in Basque free radio. Pragmatics, 5(2), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Whitfield, T. (2014). Endgame for ETA: elusive peace in the Basque Country. London: Hurst.Google Scholar
  69. Woodworth, P. (2001). Dirty war, clean hands. Cork: Cork University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Woodworth, P. (2005). Using terror against terrorists: the Spanish experience. In S. Balfour (Ed.), The politics of contemporary Spain (pp. 61–80). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  71. Woodworth, P. (2007). Basque Country: a cultural history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Wright, H. K. (2003). Cultural studies as Praxis: (making) an autobiographical case. Cultural Studies 17(6), 805–822.Google Scholar
  73. Zarraibeitia, P. (1986). Expresion mural. Ikuspen.Google Scholar
  74. Zirakzadeh, C. (2002). From revolutionary dreams to organizational fragmentation: disputes over violence within ETA and Sendero Luminoso. Terrorism and Political Violence, 14(4), 66–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ulster UniversityJordanstownUK

Personalised recommendations