International Journal of Thermophysics

, Volume 36, Issue 8, pp 1699–1712 | Cite as

Toward Reliable Industrial Radiation Thermometry

  • Y. YamadaEmail author
  • J. Ishii


Application of radiation thermometry in industrial scenes is rapidly increasing with the widespread use of low-cost infrared thermometers and thermal imagers. However, their performances are not always up to the users’ expectations. This is often due to lack of appropriate information on the limitations of the instrument performance and of radiation thermometry itself. In this article, these limitations are disclosed, namely the targeting capabilities of the thermometers including the size-of-source effect of thermal imagers, reflection errors, and unknown emissivity of the measurement object. Attempts made at the NMIJ are introduced, which aim at alleviating the effect of these difficulties. Two-color radiation thermometers have been neglected from the traceability chain and from standardization efforts due to their technical complexity. Recent activities to incorporate them effectively in the calibration chain and to establish international standards are presented. Calibration of low-cost thermometers with a fixed instrumental emissivity setting has been an issue for calibration laboratories. Simple apparatus that enables calibration of such instruments is described. Methods to compensate for unknown emissivities are presented utilizing auxiliary sources to realize a blackbody condition, which is applied to thermal imagers to overcome the problem of the size-of-source effect and reflection error at the same time. Extensions of the technique to objects with specular and scattering surfaces are described. Such efforts are encouraged in the thermometry community since they are essential in establishing an unbroken chain of traceability to the industrial front.


Emissivity compensation Emissivity setting Infrared radiation thermometer Size-of-source effect Thermal imager  Two-color ratio thermometer 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of P. Saunders of MSL for providing useful information regarding calibration of low-cost infrared thermometers, and Y. Kaneko and Y. Wang of the NMIJ for performing the measurements. The assistance of T. Iwasaki of Chino Corp. is also acknowledged for conducting measurements on special request.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Metrology Institute of JapanNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)TsukubaJapan

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