International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 155–182 | Cite as

Parasites of Neotropical Primates: A Review

  • Brenda Solórzano-García
  • Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León


The study of parasites is of great relevance to primatology given their ecological significance and their effects on primate demography, behavior, and evolution. Moreover, assessing the vulnerability of endangered species to parasitic infections is important in developing appropriate conservation strategies. We conducted an intensive bibliographical search to synthesize the available information about the parasites of Neotropical primates. We analyzed the host and parasite taxonomic coverage of the available studies, examined the advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic techniques employed, identified information gaps that need to be addressed, and recommend future directions in the parasitological research of Neotropical primates. Researchers have reported 276 parasite taxa, including endo- and ectoparasites, in 21 of the 22 genera of Neotropical primates. Of these, 42 parasite species have also been reported in humans, although this number may be inaccurate owing to misidentification. The parasites of 50% of Neotropical primate species are completely unknown, and 32% of the parasites recorded in these hosts have not been identified to the species level. Information regarding ectoparasites is particularly limited. We need to develop methods that enhance parasite diagnosis accuracy when using noninvasive samples, and the incorporation of molecular techniques in routine procedures should be a priority in parasitological studies of Neotropical primates. An integrative approach in which veterinarians, primatologists, and parasitologists collaborate in the identification and treatment of parasites of Neotropical primates is essential to achieve significant progress in this field.


Coverage Literature search Multidisciplinary approach Neotropical primates Parasites 



We thank the reviewers for their comments on this article. This study was partially funded by the Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT-UNAM IN204514) to G. Pérez-Ponce de León.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10764_2018_31_MOESM1_ESM.docx (485 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 485 kb)
10764_2018_31_MOESM2_ESM.docx (19 kb)
Table S2 (DOCX 19 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de BiologíaUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxico D.FMexico

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