International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 39, Issue 3, pp 338–355 | Cite as

The Ecology and Evolution of Fruit Odor: Implications for Primate Seed Dispersal

  • Omer NevoEmail author
  • Kim Valenta


Primates are now known to possess a keen sense of smell that serves them in various contexts, including feeding. Many primate species are frugivorous and provide essential seed dispersal services to a variety of plants. Studies of pollination ecology, and recently seed dispersal ecology, indicate that animal mutualist behavior exerts selection pressures that drive changes in flower and fruit traits. As a result, the use of olfaction in in primate feeding ecology may have affected the evolution of fruit odor in species that rely on primate seed dispersal. However, this hypothesis is seldom tested. Here, we summarize the available information on how primates may have affected the evolution of fruit odor. We ask what the chemistry of primate fruit odor may look like, what information fruit odor may convey, whether there are geographical differences in fruit odor, and what other factors may affect the odor of fruits consumed by primates. We identify many gaps in the available data and offer research questions, hypotheses, and predictions for future studies. Finally, to facilitate standardization in the field, we discuss methodological issues in the process of odor sampling and analysis.


Coevolution Fruit aroma Fruit secondary metabolites Olfaction Sensory ecology 



We thank Hiroki Sato, Laurence Culot, Yamato Tsuji, and Onja Razafindratsima for inviting us to contribute to this special issue. We also thank Joanna Setchell, Onja Razafindratsima, and three anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on a previous draft of this manuscript. O. Nevo was funded by a German Science Foundation grant (NE 2156/1-1) while working on this manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation GenomicsUniversity of UlmUlmGermany
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyMcGill UniversityQuebecCanada

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