International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 303–320 | Cite as

Coexistence between Javan Slow Lorises (Nycticebus javanicus) and Humans in a Dynamic Agroforestry Landscape in West Java, Indonesia

  • K. A. I. NekarisEmail author
  • S. Poindexter
  • K. D. Reinhardt
  • M. Sigaud
  • F. Cabana
  • W. Wirdateti
  • V. Nijman


In a world increasingly dominated by human demand for agricultural products, we need to understand wildlife’s ability to survive in agricultural environments. We studied the interaction between humans and Javan slow lorises (Nycticebus javanicus) in Cipaganti, Java, Indonesia. After its introduction in 2013, chayote (Sechium edule), a gourd grown on bamboo lattice frames, became an important cash crop. To evaluate people’s use of this crop and to measure the effect of this increase on slow loris behavior, home ranges, and sleep sites, we conducted interviews with local farmers and analysed the above variables in relation to chayote expansion between 2011 and 2015. Interviews with farmers in 2011, 2013, and 2015 confirm the importance of chayote and of bamboo and slow lorises in their agricultural practices. In 2015 chayote frames covered 12% of land in Cipaganti, occupying 4% of slow loris home ranges, which marginally yet insignificantly increased in size with the increase in chayote. Slow lorises are arboreal and the bamboo frames increased connectivity within their ranges. Of the sleep sites we monitored from 2013 to 2016, 24 had disappeared, and 201 continued to be used by the slow lorises and processed by local people. The fast growth rate of bamboo, and the recognition of the value of bamboo by farmers, allow persistence of slow loris sleep sites. Overall introduction of chayote did not result in conflict between farmers and slow lorises, and once constructed the chayote bamboo frames proved to be beneficial for slow lorises.


Agroforestry Chayote Conservation Ethnozoology Nycticebus javanicus Sechium edule Sleep site 



We thank the villagers in Cipaganti and other parts of West Java for their time and patience in sharing their views and knowledge unreservedly with us. We thank Indonesia RISTEK and the regional Perhutani and BKSDA for authorizing the study. Amersfoort Zoo, Augsburg Zoo, Brevard Zoo, Cleveland Zoo and Zoo Society, Columbus Zoo, Conservation International Primate Action Fund and Margot Marsh Biodiversity Fund, Cotswolds Wildlife Park, Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund, Henry Doorly Zoo, International Primate Protection League, Little Fireface Project, Longleat Safari and Adventure Park, Mohamed bin al Zayed Species Conservation Fund (152511813), Memphis Zoo, Nacey Maggioncalda Foundation, National Geographic (GEFNE101-13), People’s Trust for Endangered Species, Phoenix Zoo, the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), Shaldon Wildlife Trust, Shepreth Wildlife Park, Sophie Danforth Conservation Biology Fund, Whitley Wildlife Conservation Trust, and ZGAP provided the funding for this project. We thank our field team Y. Nazmi, A. Nunur, D. Rustandi, R. Cibabuddthea, D. Spaan, A. Zaelany, J. Wise, and L. Castle. We thank S. McCabe and R. Sawyer for editorial assistance. We thank two anonymous reviewers and the associate editor for extensive comments and the editor-in-chief for her help with the submission process.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nocturnal Primate Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUK
  2. 2.Oxford Wildlife Trade Research GroupOxford Brookes UniversityOxfordUK
  3. 3.Zoological DivisionIndonesian Institute of SciencesCibinongIndonesia

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