Advertisement

International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 1122–1142 | Cite as

Primate and Nonprimate Mammal Community Assembly: The Influence of Biogeographic Barriers and Spatial Scale

  • Katherine H. Bannar-Martin
Article

Abstract

At least three community assembly processes shape communities: 1) environmental niche-based processes, 2) spatial effects through dispersal limitation, and 3) biogeographic dispersal barriers. Previous studies suggested primate communities were dispersal limited, except in Madagascar, where environmental effects shaped communities. However, previous work did not investigate the role of biogeographic barriers. Further, the relative roles of these processes are potentially specific to taxonomic and/or functional groups owing to a group’s ecological preferences. I aimed to identify to what extent environmental factors, spatial effects, and biogeographic barriers shape patterns of primate and nonprimate community composition, in comparison to terrestrial and arboreal mammal communities in Madagascar. I analyzed occurrence data of nonvolant mammals and site-specific environmental and biogeographic data for 34 sites in Madagascar using principal coordinates of neighbor matrices and variation partitioning to test the relative contribution of environmental, spatial, and biogeographic effects to the patterns of community composition. Environmental and spatial effects almost equally explained nonvolant mammal communities. However, for primate and arboreal mammal communities, especially at broad spatial scales, spatial effects explained more of the variation than environmental effects. By contrast, only environmental effects explained nonprimate and terrestrial mammal distributions. Biogeographic effects were not significant for any community type. The difference between arboreal and terrestrial mammals is perhaps due to functional differences in dispersal ability, which habitat modification and a large impassable agricultural matrix in Madagascar may compound. Future research should consider the influence of functional diversity on patterns of community assembly.

Keywords

Biogeography Community assembly Dispersal Functional group Scale 

Notes

Acknowledgments

My sincere thanks go to Rebecca Lewis, Mathew Leibold, Denné Reed, Mariah Hopkins, Tony Di Fiore, and Andrew Barr for comments and helpful advice on the development of my ideas. Thank you to Steve Goodman for invaluable documents on Madagascar’s fauna that supplemented my data. Thank you also to Charlene Nielsen for invaluable ArcGIS and python advice. My gratitude also goes to Jason Kamilar, Lydia Beaudrot, and Kaye Reed for organizing the symposium at the 82nd (2013) Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists on Primate Ecology, and for editing this special issue. Finally, thank you to my two anonymous reviewers and the editors for their insightful comments on the manuscript. An NSERC PGS-D, an AAUW Doctoral Scholarship, and an Explorer’s Club Research Grant supported this research.

Supporting Information

Model 2 results, Tables SISIII, and Fig. S1 are available online.

Supplementary material

10764_2014_9792_MOESM1_ESM.docx (140 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 140 kb)

References

  1. Ackerly, D. D. (2003). Community assembly, niche conservatism, and adaptive evolution in changing environments. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164(S3), 165–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaudrot, L. H., & Marshall, A. J. (2011). Primate communities are structured more by dispersal limitation than by niches. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80(2), 332–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaudrot, L., Rejmanek, M., & Marshall, A. J. (2013a). Dispersal modes affects tropical forest assembly across trophic levels. Ecography, 36(9), 984–993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beaudrot, L., Struebig, M. J., Meijaard, E., van Balen, B., Husson, S., & Marshall, A. J. (2013b). Co-occurrence patterns of Bornean vertebrates suggest competitive exclusion is strongest among distantly related species. Oecologia, 173, 1053–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beaudrot, L., Struebig, M. J., Meijaard, E., Van Balen, S., Husson, S., Young, C. F., et al. (2013c). Interspecific interactions between primates, birds, bats, and squirrels may affect community composition on Borneo. American Journal of Primatology, 75(2), 170–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaudrot, L., Kamilar, J. K., Marshall, A. J., & Reed K. E. (2014). African primate assemblages exhibit a latitudinal gradient in dispersal limitation. International Journal of Primatology. doi: 10.1007/s10764-014-9773-5
  7. Blanchet, F. G., Legendre, P., & Borcard, D. (2008). Forward selection of explanatory variables. Ecology, 89(9), 2623–2632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borcard, D., & Legendre, P. (1994). Environmental control and spatial structure in ecological communities: An example using oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatei). Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 1(1), 37–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borcard, D., & Legendre, P. (2002). All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbour matrices. Ecological Modelling, 153(1–2), 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Avois-Jacquet, C., & Tuomisto, H. (2004). Dissecting the spatial structure of ecological data at multiple scales. Ecology, 85(7), 1826–1832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borcard, D., Gillet, F., & Legendre, P. (2011). Numerical ecology with R. New York: Springer Science + Business Media.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, J. H. (1978). The theory of island biogeography and the distribution of boreal birds and mammals. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 2, 209–227.Google Scholar
  13. Burney, D. A. (1996). Climate change and fire ecology as factors in the quaternary biogeography of Madagascar. Biogeographie de Madagascar, 49–58.Google Scholar
  14. Burney, D. A. (1997). Theories and facts regarding Holocene environmental change before and after human colonization. In S. M. Goodman & B. D. Patterson (Eds.), Natural change and human impact in Madagascar (pp. 75–89). Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  15. Burney, D. A., Robinson, G. S., & Pigott, L. (2003). Sporormiella and the late Holocene extinctions in Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100(19), 10800–10805.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chase, J. M. (2003). Community assembly: when does history matter? Oecologia, 136, 489–498. Google Scholar
  17. Chase, J. M., & Leibold, M. A. (2003). Ecological niches: Linking classical and contemporary approaches. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  18. Chase, J. M., & Myers, J. A. (2011). Disentangling the importance of ecological niches from stochastic processes across scales. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 366(1576), 2351–2363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colwell, R. K., & Lees, D. C. (2000). The mid-domain effect: Geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 70–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Condit, R., Pitman, N., Leigh, E. G., Chave, J., Terborgh, J., Foster, R. B., et al. (2002). Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science, 295(5555), 666–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cortes-Ortiz, L., Bermingham, E., Rico, C., Rodriguez-Luna, E., Sampaio, I., & Ruiz-Garcia, M. (2003). Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Alouatta. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 26(1), 64–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cottenie, K. (2005). Integrating environmental and spatial processes in ecological community dynamics. Ecology Letters, 8(11), 1175–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. de Wit, M. J. (2003). Madagascar: Heads it’s a continent, tails it’s an island. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 31(1), 213–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. DeFries, R., Hansen, A., Newton, A. C., & Hansen, M. C. (2005). Increasing isolation of protected areas in tropical forests over the past twenty years. Ecological Applications, 15(1), 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dewar, R. E., & Richard, A. F. (2007). Evolution in the hypervariable environment of Madagascar. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 13723–13727.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diamond, J. M. (1975). Assembly of species communities. In M. L. Cody & J. M. Diamond (Eds.), Ecology and evolution of communities (pp. 342–444). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Donque, G. (1972). The climatology of Madagascar. In R. Battistini & G. Richard-Vindard (Eds.), Biogeography and ecology in Madagascar (pp. 87–144). The Hague: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  28. Dray, S., Legendre, P., & Peres-Neto, P. R. (2006). Spatial modelling: A comprehensive framework for principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices (PCNM). Ecological Modelling, 196(3–4), 483–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dray, S., Legendre, P., & Blanchet, G. (2011). Packfor: Forward selection with permutation (Canoco p. 46). R package version 0.0–8/r100. Available: http://R-Forge.R-project.org/projects/sedar/.
  30. Emmons, L. H., Gautier-Hion, A., & Dubost, G. (1983). Community structure of the frugivorous-folivorous forest mammals of Gabon. Journal of Zoology, 199, 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fauth, J. E., Bernardo, J., Camara, M., Resetarits, W. J., Jr., Van Buskirk, J., & McCollum, S. A. (1996). Simplifying the jargon of community ecology: A conceptual approach. The American Naturalist, 147(2), 282–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fortin, M.-J., & Dale, M. R. T. (2005). Spatial analysis: A guide for ecologists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Ganzhorn, J. U. (1987). A possible role of plantations for primate conservation in Madagascar. American Journal of Primatology, 12(2), 205–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ganzhorn, J. U. (1999). Body mass, competition and the structure of primate communities. In J. G. Fleagle, C. H. Janson, & K. E. Reed (Eds.), Primate communities (pp. 141–157). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Ganzhorn, J. U., Goodman, S. M., Nash, S., & Thalmann, U. (2006). Lemur biogeography. In J. G. Fleagle & S. Lehman (Eds.), Primate biogeography (pp. 229–254). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. García, D., Zamora, R., & Amico, G. C. (2011). The spatial scale of plant–animal interactions: effects of resource availability and habitat structure. Ecological Monographs, 81(1), 103–121.Google Scholar
  37. Gautier-Hion, A., Emmons, L. H., & Dubost, G. (1980). A comparison of the diets of three major groups of primary consumers of Gabon (primates, squirrels and ruminants). Oecologia, 45, 182–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gavilanez, M. M., & Stevens, R. D. (2013). Role of environmental, historical and spatial processes in the structure of Neotropical primate communities: contrasting taxonomic and phylogenetic perspectives. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 22(5), 607–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gerber, B. (2010). Madagascar protected areas. Madagascar GIS. http://filebox.vt.edu/users/bgerber/services.htm (Accessed June 15, 2012).
  40. Gilbert, B., & Lechowicz, M. J. (2004). Neutrality, niches, and dispersal in a temperate forest understory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 101(20), 7651–7656.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. González-Megías, A., Gómez, J. M., & Sánchez-Piñero, F. (2005). Consequences of spatial autocorrelation for the analysis of metapopulation dynamics. Ecology, 86(12), 3264–3271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goodman, S., & Ganzhorn, J. (2004a). Elevational ranges of lemurs in the humid forests of Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology, 25(2), 331–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Goodman, S. M., & Ganzhorn, J. U. (2004b). Biogeography of lemurs in the humid forests of Madagascar: the role of elevational distribution and rivers. Journal of Biogeography, 31(1), 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Goodman, S. M., & Rasolonandrasana, B. P. N. (2001). Elevational zonation of birds, insectivores, rodents and primates on the slopes of the Andringitra Massif, Madagascar. Journal of Natural History, 35, 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goodman, S. M., Andrianarimisa, A., Olson, L. E., & Soarimalala, V. (1996). Patterns of elevational distribution of birds and small mammals in the humid forests of Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Ecotropica, 2, 87–98.Google Scholar
  46. Goodman, S. M., Jenkins, P., & Pidgeon, M. (1999). The Lipotyphla (Tenrecidae and Soricidae) of the reserve Naturelle Integrale d’Andohahela, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology, N.S., 94, 187–216.Google Scholar
  47. Gravel, D., Canham, C. D., Beaudet, M., & Messier, C. (2006). Reconciling niche and neutrality: the continuum hypothesis. Ecology Letters, 9(4), 399–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Griffith, D. A., & Peres-Neto, P. R. (2006). Spatial modeling in ecology: the flexibility of eigenfunction spatial analyses. Ecology, 87(10), 2603–2613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harcourt, A. H., & Wood, M. A. (2012). Rivers as barriers to primate distributions in Africa. International Journal of Primatology, 33(1), 168–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harper, G. J., Steininger, M. K., Tucker, C. J., Juhn, D., & Hawkins, F. (2007). Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation, 34(4), 325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harrison, S., & Cornell, H. (2008). Toward a better understanding of the regional causes of local community richness. Ecology Letters, 11(9), 969–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hijmans R. J., Guarino, L., Bussink, C., Mathur, P. Mariana, C., Barrentes, I., & Rojas, E. (2004). DIVA-GIS version 5.2 manual. Available: http://www.diva-gis.org/Materials.htm.
  53. Hijmans, R. J., Cameron, S. E., Parra, J. L., Jones, P. G., & Jarvis, A. (2005). Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965–1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hubbell, S. P. (2001). The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Irwin, M. T., Wright, P. C., Birkinshaw, C., Fisher, B. L., Gardner, C. J., Glos, J., et al. (2010). Patterns of species change in anthropogenically disturbed forests of Madagascar. Biological Conservation, 143(10), 2351–2362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, M., Tuomisto, H., Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Clark, D., & Olivas, P. (2008). Explaining variation in tropical plant community composition: influence of environmental and spatial data quality. Oecologia, 155(3), 593–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jones, K. E., Bielby, J., Cardillo, M., Fritz, S. A., O’Dell, J., C. Orme, D. L., et al. (2009). PanTHERIA: A species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals. Ecology, 90, 2648.Google Scholar
  58. Jury, M. R. (2003). The climate of Madagascar. In S. M. Goodman & J. P. Benstead (Eds.), The natural history of Madagascar (pp. 76–87). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kamilar, J. M. (2009). Environmental and geographic correlates of the taxonomic structure of primate communities. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139, 382–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kamilar, J. M., & Ledogar, J. A. (2011). Species co-occurrence patterns and dietary resource competition in primates. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 144, 131–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kamilar, J. M., & Muldoon, K. M. (2010). The climatic niche diversity of Malagasy primates: a phylogenetic approach. PLoS ONE, 5, e11073.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kamilar, J. M., Muldoon, K. M., Lehman, S. M., & Herrera, J. P. (2012). Testing Bergmann’s rule and the resource seasonality hypothesis in Malagasy primates using GIS-based climate gdata. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 147, 401–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Klein, J. (2002). Deforestation in the Madagascar highlands – established `truth' and scientific uncertainty. GeoJournal, 56(3), 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Laliberté, E., Paquette, A., Legendre, P., & Bouchard, A. (2009). Assessing the scale-specific importance of niches and other spatial processes on beta diversity: a case study from a temperate forest. Oecologia, 159(2), 377–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lees, D. C., Kremen, C., & Andriamampianina, L. (1999). A null model for species richness gradients: bounded range overlap of butterflies and other rainforest endemics in Madagascar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 67, 529–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Legendre, P., & Gallagher, E. (2001). Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia, 129(2), 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Legendre, P., & Legendre, L. (2012). Numerical ecology (3rd ed.). Boston: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  68. Legendre, P., Borcard, D., & Peres-Neto, P. R. (2005). Analyzing beta diversity: partitioning the spatial variation of community composition data. Ecological Monographs, 75(4), 435–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Legendre, P., De Caceres, M., & Borcard, D. (2010). Community surveys through space and time: testing the space-time interaction in the absence of replication. Ecology, 91(1), 262–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lehner, B., & Doll, P. (2004). Global Lakes and Wetlands database, Lakes and Wetlands Grid (Level 3). Washington: World Wildlife Fund.Google Scholar
  71. Leibold, M. A., & McPeek, M. A. (2006). Coexistence of the niche and neutral perspectives in community ecology. Ecology, 87(6), 1399–1410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Leibold, M. A., Holyoak, M., Mouquet, N., Amarasekare, P., Chase, J. M., Hoopes, M. F., et al. (2004). The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters, 7(7), 601–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Lindo, Z., & Winchester, N. (2009). Spatial and environmental factors contributing to patterns in arboreal and terrestrial oribatid mite diversity across spatial scales. Oecologia, 160(4), 817–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lomolino, M. V., & Davis, R. (1997). Biogeographic scale and biodiversity of mountain forest mammals of Western North America. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 6(1), 57–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. MacArthur, R. H., & Wilson, E. O. (1967). The theory of island biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  76. McCain, C. M. (2005). Elevational gradients in diversity of small mammals. Ecology, 86(2), 366–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mittermeier, R., Ganzhorn, J., Konstant, W., Glander, K., Tattersall, I., Groves, C., et al. (2008). Lemur diversity in Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology, 29(6), 1607–1656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morris, D. W. (2005). On the roles of time, space and habitat in a boreal small mammal assemblage: predictably stochastic assembly. Oikos, 109(2), 223–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Muldoon, K. M., & Goodman, S. M. (2010). Ecological biogeography of Malagasy non-volant mammals: community structure is correlated with habitat. Journal of Biogeography, 37(6), 1144–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Muldoon, K. M., Crowley, B. E., Godfrey, L. R., Rasoamiaramanana, A., Aronson, A., Jernvall, J., et al. (2012). Early Holocene fauna from a new subfossil site: a first assessment from Christmas River, south central Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation and Development, 7, 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oksanen, J., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., O'Hara, B., Simpson, G. L., Henry, M., Stevens, H. H., & Wagner, H. (2008). Vegan: Community Ecology Package: R package version 1.13–1.Google Scholar
  82. Pastorini, J., Thalmann, U., & Martin, R. D. (2003). A molecular approach to comparative phylogeography of extant Malagasy lemurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 100, 5879–5884.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pearson, R. G., & Raxworthy, C. J. (2009). The evolution of local endemism in Madagascar: watershed versus climatic gradient hypotheses evaluated by null biogeographic models. Evolution, 63, 959–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Peres-Neto, P. R., Legendre, P., Dray, S., & Borcard, D. (2006). Variation partitioning of species data matrices: estimation and comparison of fractions. Ecology, 87(10), 2614–2625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Potts, M. D., Ashton, P. S., Kaufman, L. S., & Plotkin, J. B. (2002). Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests: a comparison of 105 plots in Northwest Borneo. Ecology, 83(10), 2782–2797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pozo-Montuy, G., Serio-Silva, J. C., & Bonilla-Sanchez, Y. M. (2011). Influence of the landscape matrix on the abundance of arboreal primates in fragmented landscapes. Primates, 52(2), 139–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Prugh, L. R., Hodges, K. E., Sinclair, A. R. E., & Brashares, J. S. (2008). Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 105(52), 20770–20775.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Qian, H., & Ricklefs, R. E. (2012). Disentangling the effects of geographic distance and environmental dissimilarity on global patterns of species turnover. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 341–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Remis, M. (1995). Effects of body size and social context on the arboreal activities of lowland gorillas in the Central African Republic. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 97(4), 413–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ricklefs, R. E. (1987). Community diversity: relative roles of local and regional processes. Science, 235(4785), 167–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ricklefs, R. E., & Schluter, D. (1993). Species diversity in ecological communities: Historical and geographical perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  92. Santos-Filho, M., Peres, C. A., da Silva, D. J., & Sanaiotti, T. M. (2012). Habitat patch and matrix effects on small-mammal persistence in Amazonian forest fragments. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 1127–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schwitzer, C., Glatt, L., Nekaris, K. A. I., & Ganzhorn, J. U. (2011). Responses of animals to habitat alteration: an overview focussing on primates. Endangered Species Research, 14(1), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shi, J. J., Chen, L. M., Rakotomalala, Z., Heilman, A. M., Goodman, S. M., & Yoder, A. D. (2013). Latitude drives diversification in Madagascar's endemic dry forest rodent Eliurus myoxinus (subfamily Nesomyinae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 110, 500–517.Google Scholar
  95. Simpson, G. G. (1953). Evolution and geography: an essay on historical biogeography with special reference to mammals. Eugene: Oregon State System of Higher Education.Google Scholar
  96. Soininen, J., McDonald, R., & Hillebrand, H. (2007). The distance decay of similarity in ecological communities. Ecography, 30(1), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. ter Braak, C. J. F., & Prentice, C. I. (1988). A theory of gradient analysis. Advances in Ecological Research, 18, 271–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tilman, D., & Pacala, S. (1993). The maintenance of species richness in plant communities. In R. E. Ricklefs & D. Schluter (Eds.), Species diversity in ecological communities: Historical and geographical perspectives (pp. 13–25). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  99. Tokeshi, M. (1999). Species coexistence: Ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  100. Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., & Yli-Halla, M. (2003). Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of Western Amazonian forests. Science, 299(5604), 241–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vences, M., Wollenberg, K. C., Vieites, D. R., & Lees, D. C. (2009). Madagascar as a model region of species diversification. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24(8), 456–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wade, T. G., Schultz, B. W., Wickham, J. D., & Bradford, D. F. (1998). Modeling the potential spatial distribution of beef cattle grazing using a geographic information system. Journal of Arid Environments, 38(2), 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Warren, R. D., & Crompton, R. H. (1997). Locomotor ecology of Lepilemur edwardsi and Avahi occidentalis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104(4), 471–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wiens, J. A. (1989). Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology, 3(4), 385–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wilmé, L., Goodman, S. M., & Ganzhorn, J. U. (2006). Biogeographic evolution of Madagascar’s microendemic biota. Science, 312, 1063–1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal species of the world: A taxonomic and geographic reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations