International Journal of Primatology

, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 1477–1502 | Cite as

Distribution and New Sightings of Goeldi’s Monkey (Callimico goeldii) in Amazonian Perú

  • Mrinalini Watsa
  • Gideon A. Erkenswick
  • Jennifer A. Rehg
  • Renata Leite Pitman


There is a general consensus on the geographic distributions of many primate species; however, the continuity and validity of species range maps are often inaccurate on a local scale. In the case of rare and cryptic species, census methodology is often insufficiently rigorous or specialized, resulting in probable false negatives. Callimico goeldii is a rare primate, with most of its geographical range purported to lie in Perú. We evaluate the accuracy of its predicted geographic range within Perú with an assessment of mammal surveys over the last 40 yr and the inclusion of new sightings from three sites. We found that of all 340 study sites, only 10.9 % indicate that this species is present, and only 51 % of these sites receive any government protection. The Sierra del Divisor Reserve Zone and the Rodal Tahuamanu Conservation Concession have the highest estimated densities of Callimico goeldii. We suggest using focal follows of sympatric tamarins and vocalization playbacks rather than traditional line transects to improve the likelihood of locating this species. Although the current range maps based on the available data are likely an exaggeration of the species’ true range, the inherent imperfections of standard census methodology when applied to rare and cryptic species can lead to underrepresentative range maps as well. For these reasons, it is clear that the current distribution map for Callimico goeldii is imprecise, and until its distribution is reassessed, its conservation status cannot be confirmed.


Amazonian Perú Callimico goeldii Distribution Conservation 



This research was supported by grants from the American Society of Mammologists, the Animal Behaviour Society, the Amazon Conservation Association, Frankfurt Zoological Society — AVISA — Perú, IdeaWILD, the International Primatological Society, Lambda Alpha, Primate Conservation, Inc., PrimatesPeru, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, and Washington University in Saint Louis. We thank the three anonymous reviewers and the editors for their immense help with this manuscript, as well as the administration and staff of CICRA, ACCA, ECOMATH, and Conservation International, especially Percy Summers, Deuso Souza, and Adrian Tejedor. The Ministerio de Agricultura de Perú and the Animal Studies Committees and IACUC of Washington University in Saint Louis and Southern Illinois University Edwardsville authorized this work. We thank the following people for their invaluable help tracking Callimico goeldii and tamarins in the forests of Perú: Inés Nole, Emma K. Wallace, Karina Klonoski, Santiago Cassalett, Mike Mangalea, Alice Poirier, Elizabeth Maciag, Erin Kane, Rhea K. Mac, Deirdre Halloran, Mary Dinsmore, Holly McCready, Will F.L. Hsu, Alanna Slack, Carly Rose, Elizabeth Kirby, René Escudero and Emeterio Nuñonca. Species range polygon data from NatureServe was provided in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy — Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International — CABS, World Wildlife Fund — US, and Environment Canada — WILDSPACE.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mrinalini Watsa
    • 1
  • Gideon A. Erkenswick
    • 2
  • Jennifer A. Rehg
    • 3
  • Renata Leite Pitman
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyWashington University in Saint LouisSaint LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of Missouri - Saint LouisSaint LouisUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnthropologySouthern Illinois University EdwardsvilleEdwardsvilleUSA
  4. 4.Center for Tropical ConservationDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

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