We revise the taxonomy of the primate family Tarsiidae. We classify extant tarsiers in 3 genera—Tarsius, Cephalopachus, and Carlito—each of which originated in the Miocene, or earlier, and each of which is allopatrically distributed within a distinct biogeographic region: Sulawesi, Sundaland, and Greater Mindanao, respectively. Within the genus Tarsius, formerly regarded as a single species, Tarsius spectrum, we recognize 8 allopatric and parapatric species, 9 if the inclusion of pumilus is warranted, and note that more are likely to be described in the near future. We restrict Tarsius tarsier, the senior taxon of the genus, to the island of Selayar, off the tip of the southwestern peninsula of Sulawesi. In doing so, it is required that we resurrect Tarsius fuscus Fischer 1804, for the population of tarsiers from the southwestern peninsula near the city of Makassar. We note that neither Cephalopachus nor Carlito has been the subject of anywhere near as much field research as has Tarsius; thus we question if the currently accepted α taxonomy for these genera is based on knowledge or ignorance.
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This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. INT 0107277 to M. Shekelle, and grants from the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, the Gibbon Foundation, and Primate Conservation, Inc. to M. Shekelle. Sponsorship for M. Shekelle in Indonesia was provided by Noviar Andayani of the Center for Biodiversity and Conservation Studies, University of Indonesia, and by the Indonesian Institute for Science. The Indonesian Department of Forestry provided permits for conducting research in conservation areas and for trapping tarsiers. Dr. Siti Nuramaliati Prijono provided facilities for keeping live tarsiers. Joseph Voyles, Emeritus Professor of Germanics and Linguistics, provided assistance with the referential meaning of the name Karl. We thank 2 anonymous reviewers for several excellent suggestions, including the map and table.
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Groves, C., Shekelle, M. The Genera and Species of Tarsiidae. Int J Primatol 31, 1071–1082 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-010-9443-1
- Bantimurung form
- Cryptic species
- Duet call
- Selayar form