Saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis, S. melanoleucus, and S. tripartitus) occur in the upper Amazon, west of the rios Madeira and Mamoré–Guaporé to the Andes. They currently comprise 13 species and subspecies in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Here we report on a previously undescribed subspecies of Saguinus fuscicollis from the interfluvium of the lower rios Madeira and Purus in the central Amazon of Brazil. It is a distinct form with a very pronounced mottling on the back giving the appearance of a saddle, a characteristic shared by the 3 species, and the reason for their collective common name. The lack of a white superciliary chevron and its highly mottled ochraceous-dark brown to black saddle that extends from the scapular region to the base of the tail distinguish the new taxon from Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli. The latter characteristic also distinguishes it from another saddleback tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis ssp.) that has been reported immediately to the south of its range in the same interfluvium. We compare pelage coloration, external characters and craniometric measurements with its geographically closest relatives, Saguinus fuscicollis weddelli and S. f. avilapiresi, and indicate its probable geographic distribution in a small area between the rios Madeira and Purus, just south of the Rio Amazonas.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Van Roosmalen (2003) named the saddleback tamarin he described, but only on his website (http://www.amazonnewspecies.com). Article 11 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) (1999, 4th edition, published by the Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London) states that “To be available, a name or, where relevant, a nomenclatural act must satisfy the following provisions: 11.1 The name or nomenclatural act must have been published, in the meaning of Article 8, after 1757.” Article 8 considers what constitutes published work, and refers to Article 9 that lists what is not considered to be a published work. This includes (9.8) “text or illustrations distributed by means of electronic signals (e.g. by means of the World Wide Web.” Until the description of Van Roosmalen’s (2003) tamarin is published according to the regulations of the ICZN, the name remains unavailable.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (1990). Polyspecific association of two tamarin species Saguinus labiatus and Saguinus fuscicollis in Bolivia. American Journal of Primatology, 22, 205–214. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350220306.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (1999). Tamarin polyspecific associations: Forest utilization and stability of mixed-species groups. Primates, 40, 233–247. doi:10.1007/BF02557713.
Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Hardie, S. M., Caceres, C., & Prescott, M. J. (2000). Distribution and forest utilization of Saguinus and other primates of the Pando Department, northern Bolivia. International Journal of Primatology, 21, 353–379. doi:10.1023/A:1005483601403.
de Carvalho, C. T. (1957). Nova subespécie de saguim da Amazônia. Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 17, 219–222.
Dunne, T., Mertes, L. A., Meade, R. H., Richey, J. E., & Forsberg, B. R. (1998). Exchanges of sediment between the floodplain and channel of the Amazon River in Brazil. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, 163–182. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1998)110<0163:DAEOAN>2.3.CO;2.
Egler, S. G. (1991). Double-toothed kites following tamarins. The Wilson Bulletin, 103, 510–512.
Fearnside, P. M., & Graça, L. A. (2006). BR-319: Brazil’s Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central Amazonia. Environmental Management, 38, 705–716. doi:10.1007/s00267-005-0295-y.
Ferrari, S. F., & Lopes, M. A. (1992). New data on the distribution of primates in the region of the confluence of the Jiparana and Madeira rivers in Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. Goeldiana Zoologia, (11), 1–13.
Garber, P. A. (1993). Feeding ecology and behaviour of the genus Saguinus. In A. B. Rylands (Ed.), Marmosets and tamarins: Systematics, behaviour, and ecology (pp. 273–295). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hershkovitz, P. (1966). On the identification of some marmosets Family Callitrichidae (Primates). Mammalia, 20, 327–332.
Hershkovitz, P. (1977). Living New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an introduction to Primates, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Heymann, E. W. (1990). Reactions of wild tamarins, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis to avian predators. International Journal of Primatology, 11, 327–337. doi:10.1007/BF02193004.
Heymann, E. W., & Buchanan-Smith, H. M. (2000). The behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of callitrichine primates. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 75, 169–190. doi:10.1017/S0006323199005460.
Peres, C. A. (1992). Prey-capture benefits in a mixed-species group of Amazonian tamarins Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus mystax. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 31, 339–347. doi:10.1007/BF00177774.
Peres, C. A. (1993a). Notes on the primates of the Juruá River, western Brazilian Amazonia. Folia Primatologica, 61, 97–103. doi:10.1159/000156735.
Peres, C. A. (1993b). Structure and spatial organization of an Amazonian terra firme forest primate community. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 9, 259–276.
Peres, C. A. (1993c). Anti-predation benefits in a mixed-species group of Amazonian tamarins. Folia Primatologica, 61(2), 61–76. doi:10.1159/000156732.
Peres, C. A., Patton, J. L., & da Silva, M. N. F. (1996). Riverine barriers and gene flow in Amazonian saddle-back tamarins. Folia Primatologica, 67, 113–124.
Porter, L. M. (2001). Dietary differences among sympatric Callitrichidae in northern Bolívia: Callimico goeldii, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus. International Journal of Primatology, 22, 961–992. doi:10.1023/A:1012013621258.
Prance, G. T. (1987). Vegetation. In T. C. Whitmore & G. T. Prance (Eds.), Biogeography and quaternary history in tropical America (pp. 28–45). Oxford: Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press.
Röhe, F. (2007). Mamíferos de médio e grande porte do médio Rio Madeira. In L. Rapp Py-Daniel, C. P. Deus, A. L. Henriquez, D. M. Pimpão & O. M. Ribeiro (Eds.), Biodiversidade do Médio Madeira: Bases cientificas para propostas de conservação (pp. 195–209). Manaus: Instituto Nacional de pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA).
Rylands, A. B. (1996). Habitat and the evolution of social and reproductive behavior in Callitrichidae. American Journal of Primatology, 38, 5–18.
Rylands, A. B., Coimbra-Filho, A. F., & Mittermeier, R. A. (1993). Systematics, distributions and some notes on the conservation status of the Callitrichidae. In A. B. Rylands (Ed.), Marmosets and tamarins: Systematics, behaviour, and ecology (pp.11–77). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rylands, A. B., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Groves, C. P., & Rodriguez-Luna, E. (2000). An assessment of the diversity of New World Monkeys. Neotropical Primates, 8, 61–93.
Rylands, A. B., Mittermeier, R. A., Coimbra-Filho, A. F., Heymann, E. W., de la Torre, S., Silva, J. S., Jr., et al. (2008). Marmosets and tamarins—Pocket identification guide. Arlington, VA: Conservation International.
Soares-Filho, B. S., Nepstad, D. C., Curran, L. M., Cerqueira, G. C., Garcia, R. A., Ramos, C. A., et al. (2006). Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature, 440, 520–523. doi:10.1038/nature04389.
Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. (2003). New species from Amazonia. Retrieved from http://www.amazonnewspecies.com (Accessed September 26, 2003). See also http://www.marcvanroosmalen.org/newspecies.htm (Accessed December 29, 2008).
This new tamarin subspecies was discovered during an expedition conducted as part of the project Biodiversity of the Madeira–Purus Interfluvium, an initiative of the Geoma network of Brazil’s Ministry of Science and Technology (Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia [MCT]). We thank the staff and curators who gave us access to the Mammal collections of the National Institute for Amazon Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia [INPA]), Manaus, the Emilio Goeldi Museum (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi [MPEG]), Belém, and the Zoology Museum of the University of São Paulo (Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo [MZUSP]), São Paulo. Petrobrás kindly provided use of a helicopter during the expedition, and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and Conservation Leadership Program (CLP) provided financial support to Fabio Röhe. Adriano C. S. Antunes prepared the type specimens. The illustration of Saguinus fuscicollis mura was drawn by Stephen D. Nash, Stony Brook University, New York. We thank an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments.
About this article
Cite this article
Röhe, F., e Silva, J.d., Sampaio, R. et al. A New Subspecies of Saguinus fuscicollis (Primates, Callitrichidae). Int J Primatol 30, 533–551 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-009-9358-x
- Central Amazon
- geographic distribution
- Saguinus fuscicollis ssp. n.