Postconflict Affiliation of Aggressors in Papio hamadryas

Abstract

Researchers have associated variation in the occurrence of postconflict behaviors with variation in the relationship quality between involved individuals. Apart from those on the great apes, the vast majority of postconflict studies involved female-bonded species and focused on the victim. We examined postconflict affiliation involving the aggressor in a non-female-bonded species, hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas), and investigated the influence of relationship quality on the occurrence of 2 types of postconflict affiliative behaviors. Hamadryas baboons reconciled after a conflict and the highest rate of reconciliation was between one-male unit (OMU) leader males and their females. Via direct measures of relationship characteristics we also found that partners with higher-quality relationship, e.g., highly affiliative dyads and allies, showed higher levels of conciliatory tendency than dyads with lower-quality relationship, e.g., less affiliative dyads and non-allies. We found evidence of postconflict third-party affiliation initiated by aggressors, but not by third parties. Further, aggressor-initiated affiliation was more likely with individuals of the same OMU and individuals with which the aggressor maintained a strongly affiliative relationship. Our findings provide further support for relationship quality as a fundamental underlying factor not only in reconciliation, but also in postconflict affiliations involving third parties.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Abegglen, J. J. (1984). On Socialization in Hamadryas baboons. London: Associated University Presses.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Altmann, J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227–265. doi:10.1163/156853974X00534.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Arnold, K., & Aureli, F. (2007). Postconflict reconciliation. In C. J. Campbell, A. Fuentes, K. C. MacKinnon, M. Panger, & S. K. Bearder (Eds.), Primates in Perspective (pp. 592–608). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Arnold, K., & Barton, R. A. (2001a). Post-conflict behaviour of leaf monkeys (Tachypithecus obscurus). I. Reconciliation. International Journal of Primatology, 22, 243–266. doi:10.1023/A:1005623631652.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Arnold, K., & Barton, R. A. (2001b). Post-conflict behaviour of leaf monkeys (Tachypithecus obscurus). II. Contact with third parties. International Journal of Primatology, 22, 267–285. doi:10.1023/A:1005675615723.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arnold, K., & Whiten, A. (2001). Post-conflict behaviour of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Behaviour, 138, 649–690. doi:10.1163/156853901316924520.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Aureli, F. (1997). Post-conflict anxiety in nonhuman primates: The mediating role of emotion in conflict resolution. Aggressive Behavior, 23, 315–328. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2337(1997)23:5<315::AID-AB2>3.0.CO;2-H.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Aureli, F., & de Waal, F.B.M. (Eds.).(2000). Natural Conflict Resolution. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  9. Aureli, F., & van Schaik, C. P. (1991). Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis): II. Coping with the uncertainty. Ethology, 89, 101–114.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Aureli, F., Cords, M., & van Schaik, C. (2002). Conflict resolution following aggression in gregarious animals: A predictive framework. Animal Behaviour, 64, 325–343. doi:10.1006/anbe.2002.3071.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Aureli, F., van Schaik, C. P., & van Hoof, J. A. R. A. M. (1989). Functional aspects of reconciliation among captive long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology, 19, 39–51. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350190105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Barton, R. A. (2000). Socioecology of baboons: The interaction of male and female strategies. In P. M. Kapperler (Ed.), Primate Males: Causes and Consequences of Variation in Group Composition (pp. 97–107). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Call, J., Aureli, F., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2002). Post-conflict third-party affiliation in stumptailed macaques. Animal Behaviour, 63, 209–216. doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1908.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Castles, D. L., & Whiten, A. (1998). Post-conflict behaviour of wild olive baboons. I. Reconciliation, redirection and consolation. Ethology, 104, 126–147.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Colmenares, F. (1990). Greeting behaviour in male baboons, I: Communication, reciprocity and symmetry. Behaviour, 113, 81–116. doi:10.1163/156853990X00446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Colmenares, F. (1996a). Conflictos sociales y estrategias de interacción en los primates, I: esquema conceptual y tipología basada en criterios estructurales. In F. Comenares (Ed.), Etología, psicología comparada y comportamiento animal (pp. 341–399). Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Colmenares, F. (1996b). Conflictos sociales y estrategias de interacción en los primates, II: mecanismos, función y evolución. In F. Comenares (Ed.), Etología, psicología comparada y comportamiento animal (pp. 401–457). Madrid: Editorial Síntesis.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Colmenares, F. (2004). Kinship structure and its impact on behavior in multilevel societies. In B. Chapais, & C. Berman (Eds.), Kinship and Behavior in Nonhuman Primates (pp. 242–270). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Colmenares, F., & Gomendio, M. (1988). Changes in female reproductive condition following male take-overs in a colony of hamadryas and hybrid baboons. Folia Primatologica, 50, 150–174. doi:10.1159/000156343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Colmenares, F., Zaragoza, F., & Hernández-Lloreda, M. V. (2002). Grooming and coercion in one-male-units of hamadryas baboons: Market forces or relationship constraints? Behaviour, 139, 1525–1553. doi:10.1163/15685390260514753.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Colmenares, F., Esteban, M. M., & Zaragoza, F. (2006). One-male units and clans in a colony of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas): Effect of male number and clan cohesion on feeding success. American Journal of Primatology, 68, 21–37. doi:10.1002/ajp.20204.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Cools, A. K. A., van Hout, A. J. M., & Nelissen, M. H. J. (2008). Canine reconciliation and third-party-initiated postconflict affiliation: Do peacemaking social mechanisms in dogs rival those of higher primates? Ethology, 114, 53–63.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Cooper, M. A., Berntein, I. S., & Hemelrijk, C. K. (2005). Reconciliation and relationship quality in Assamese macaques (Macaca assamensis). American Journal of Primatology, 65, 269–289. doi:10.1002/ajp.20114.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Cooper, M. A., Aureli, F., & Singh, M. (2007). Sex differences in reconciliation and post-conflict anxiety in bonnet macaques. Ethology, 113, 26–38.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Cordoni, G., Palagi, E., & Borgognini Tarli, S. (2006). Reconciliation and consolation in captive western gorillas. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 1365–1382. doi:10.1007/s10764-006-9078-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Cords, M., & Aureli, F. (1993). Patterns of reconciliation among juvenile long-tailed macaques. In M. E. Pereira, & L. A. Fairbanks (Eds.), Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development, and Behavior (pp. 271–284). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Cords, M., & Aureli, F. (2000). Reconciliation and relationship qualities. In F. Aureli, & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution pp. 177–198. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Das, M. (2000). Conflict management via third parties: Post-conflict affiliation of the aggressor. In F. Aureli, & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 263–280). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Das, M., Penke, Z., & van Hooff, J. A. R. A. M. (1998). Postconflict affiliation and stress-related behavior of long-tailed macaque aggressors. International Journal of Primatology, 19, 53–71. doi:10.1023/A:1020354826422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. de Waal, F. B. M. (2000). Primates - A natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science, 289, 586–590. doi:10.1126/science.289.5479.586.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. de Waal, F. B. M., & Aureli, F. (1996). Consolation, reconciliation, and a possible cognitive difference between macaques and chimpanzees. In A. E. Russon, K. A. Bard, & S. T. Parker (Eds.), Reaching into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes (pp. 80–110). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. de Waal, F. B. M., & Aureli, F. (1997). Conflict resolution and distress alleviation in monkeys and apes. In C. S. Carter, B. Kirkpatrick, & I. Lenderhendler (Eds.), The Integrative Neurobiology of Affiliation (pp. 317–328). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Science.

    Google Scholar 

  33. de Waal, F. B. M., & Luttrell, L. M. (1988). Mechanisms of social reciprocity in three primate species: Symmetrical relationship characteristics or cognition? Ethology and Sociobiology, 9, 101–118. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(88)90016-7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. de Waal, F. B. M., & van Roosmalen, A. (1979). Reconciliation and consolation among chimpanzees. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 5, 55–66. doi:10.1007/BF00302695.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. de Waal, F. B. M., & Yoshihara, D. (1983). Reconciliation and redirected affection in rhesus monkeys. Behaviour, 85, 223–241. doi:10.1163/156853983X00237.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Judge, P. (2003). Conflict resolution. In D. Maestripieri (Ed.), Primate Psychology (pp. 41–68). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Kappeler, P. M., & van Schaik, C. P. (1992). Methodological and evolutionary aspects of reconciliation among primates. Ethology, 92, 51–69.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Koski, S. E., & Sterck, E. H. M. (2007). Triadic postconflict affiliation in captive chimpanzees: Does consolation console? Animal Behaviour, 73, 133–142. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.04.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Koski, S. E., Koops, K., & Sterck, E. H. M. (2007). Reconciliation, relationship quality, and postconflict anxiety: Testing the integrated hypothesis in captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 69, 158–172. doi:10.1002/ajp.20338.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Kummer, H. (1968). Social Organisation of Hamadryas Baboons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Kummer, H. (1984). From laboratory to desert and back: A social system of hamadryas baboons. Animal Behaviour, 32, 965–971. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(84)80208-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Kummer, H. (1995). In Quest of the Sacred Baboon: A Scientist's Journey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Kutsukake, N., & Castles, D. L. (2004). Reconciliation and post-conflict third-party affiliation among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. Primates, 45, 157–165. doi:10.1007/s10329-004-0082-z.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Kutsukake, N., & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2008). Do meerkats engage in conflict management following aggression? Reconciliation, submission and avoidance. Animal Behaviour, 75, 1441–1453.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mallavarapu, S., Stoinski, T. S., Bloomsmith, M. A., & Maple, T. L. (2006). Postconflict behavior in captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). American Journal of Primatology, 68, 789–801. doi:10.1002/ajp.20279.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Nagel, U. (1971). Social organization in a baboon hybrid zone. In H. Kummer (Ed.), Proceedings of the third International Congress of Primatology, Vol. 3: Behavior (pp. 48–57). Basel: S. Karger.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Neave, H. R., & Worthington, P. L. (1988). Distribution-free Tests. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Palagi, E., Paoli, T., & Borgognini Tarli, S. (2004). Reconciliation and consolation in captive bonobos (Pan paniscus). American Journal of Primatology, 62, 15–30. doi:10.1002/ajp.20000.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Palagi, E., Cordoni, G., & Borgognini Tarli, S. (2006). Possible roles of consolation in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 129, 105–111. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20242.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Petit, O., & Thierry, B. (1994). Reconciliation in a group of Guinea baboons. In J. J. Roeder, B. Thierry, J. R. Anderson, & N. Herrenschmidt (Eds.), Current Primatology, Vol. II: Social Development, Learning and Behavior (pp. 137–145). Strasbourg: Université Louis Pasteur.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Phillips-Conroy, J. E., & Jolly, C. J. (1986). Changes in the structure of the baboon hybrid zone in the Awash National Park, Ethiopia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 71, 337–350. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330710309.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Romero, T., Colmenares, F., & Aureli, F. Testing the function of reconciliation and third-party affiliation for aggressors in Hamadryas Baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas). American Journal of Primatology, in press.

  53. Schino, G. (2000). Beyond the primates: Expanding the reconciliation horizon. In F. Aureli, & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 225–242). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Schino, G., Geminiani, S., Rosati, L., & Aureli, F. (2004). Behavioral and emotional response of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) mothers after their offspring receive an aggression. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 340–346. doi:10.1037/0735-7036.118.3.340.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Seed, A., Clayton, & Emery, N. (2007). Postconflict third-party affiliation in rooks, Corvus frugilegus. Current Biology, 17, 152–158.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Siegel, S., & Castellan, N. J. (1998). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Sigg, H. (1980). Differentiation of female positions in hamadryas one-male-units. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 53, 265–302.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Silk, J. B. (1982). Altruism among female Macaca radiata: Explanations and analysis of patterns of grooming and coalition formation. Behaviour, 79, 162–188. doi:10.1163/156853982X00238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Silk, J. B. (2002). The form and function of reconciliation in primates. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31, 21–44. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.31.032902.101743.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Silk, J. B., Cheney, D. L., & Seyfarth, R. M. (1996). The form and function of postconflict interactions between female baboons. Animal Behaviour, 52, 259–268. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Stammbach, E. (1987). Desert, forest, and montane baboons: Multilevel societies. In B. B. Smuth, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham, & T. T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate Societies (pp. 112–120). Chicago: Chicago University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Swedell, L. (2002). Affiliation among females in wild hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas). International Journal of Primatology, 23, 1205–1226. doi:10.1023/A:1021170703006.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. van Schaik, C. P. (1989). The ecology of social relationships amongst female primates. In V. Standen, & R. A. Foley (Eds.), Comparative Socioecology. The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals (pp. 195–218). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Veenema, H., Das, M., & Aureli, F. (1994). Methodological improvements for the study of reconciliation. Behavioural Processes, 31, 29–38. doi:10.1016/0376-6357(94)90035-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Verbeek, P., & de Waal, F. B. M. (1997). Postconflict behavior of captive brown capuchins in the presence and absence of attractive food. International Journal of Primatology, 18, 703–725. doi:10.1023/A:1026391728909.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Wahaj, S. A., Guse, K. R., & Holekamp, K. E. (2001). Reconciliation in spotted hyena (Crocuta crotuta). Ethology, 107, 1057–1074. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0310.2001.00717.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Watts, D. P. (1995). Post-conflict social events in wild mountain gorillas (Mammalia, Hominoidea) I. Social interactions between opponents. Ethology, 100, 139–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Watts, D. P. (2006). Conflict resolution in chimpanzees and the valuable-relationships hypothesis. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 1337–1364. doi:10.1007/s10764-006-9081-9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Watts, D. P., Colmenares, F., & Arnold, K. (2000). Redirection, consolation, and male policing: How targets of aggression interact with bystanders. In F. Aureli, & F. B. M. de Waal (Eds.), Natural Conflict Resolution (pp. 281–301). Berkeley: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Weaver, A. (2003). Conflict and reconciliation in captive bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus. Marine Mammal Science, 19, 836–846. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2003.tb01134.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Wittig, R. M., & Boesch, C. (2003). The choice of post-conflict interactions in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behaviour, 140, 1527–1559. doi:10.1163/156853903771980701.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Wrangham, R. W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour, 75, 262–300. doi:10.1163/156853980X00447.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Zaragoza, F., & Colmenares, F. (1997). Reconciliation and consolation in hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Advances in Ethology, 32, 158.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank the Madrid Zoo for allowing and facilitating this research. We also thank Frans de Waal for his comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Project grants PB98-0773 and BS02002-00161 to F. Colmenares partially supported the investigation. T. Romero was supported by a graduate research fellowship from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Teresa Romero.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Romero, T., Colmenares, F. & Aureli, F. Postconflict Affiliation of Aggressors in Papio hamadryas . Int J Primatol 29, 1591–1606 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10764-008-9315-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Papio hamadryas
  • reconciliation
  • relationship quality
  • third-party affiliation