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Direct and Transfer Effects of an Interdisciplinary Model Integrating Science and Reading in Grades 1–3: Results and Policy Implications


Implemented was a 45-minute per day Primary Science IDEAS intervention in grades 1–2 integrating reading and writing within science instruction in a multi-year study conducted in 8 experimental and 9 control schools. Results found a significant direct achievement effect in grades 1–2 on both the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) Science and Reading. In addition, the direct effect of the intervention in grades 1–2 also resulted in significant achievement transfer from grades 1–2 to grade 3 on both the ITBS Science and Reading. Discussed are policy implications of the findings for increasing instructional time allocated to science in grades 1–2 and expanding the focus of grade 1–2 student achievement assessment to include content-area learning.

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The research reported here was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant REC 1316433 to Florida Atlantic University.

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Correspondence to Michael R. Vitale.

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Dr. Michael Vitale passed away suddenly in June 2022.

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Vitale, M.R., Romance, N. Direct and Transfer Effects of an Interdisciplinary Model Integrating Science and Reading in Grades 1–3: Results and Policy Implications. Int J of Sci and Math Educ 21, 2203–2214 (2023).

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