High School Students’ Motivation to Learn Mathematics: The Role of Multiple Goals

  • Chi-hung Clarence NgEmail author


Using a sample of 310 Year 10 Chinese students from Hong Kong, this survey study examined the effects of multiple goals in learning mathematics. Independent variables were mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and pro-social goals. Dependent variables included perceived classroom goal structures, teacher’s support, learning motives and strategies, attitudes, and grade aspiration. Based on regression and cluster analyses, this study found convergent evidence supporting the benefits of adopting additional adaptive goals alongside mastery goals. Regression analyses located significant interaction between pro-social goals and mastery goals in predicting higher levels of positive learning attitudes and lower levels of surface learning motives. Cluster analyses confirmed that students endorsing pro-social goals, performance-approach goals and mastery goals in their goal profiles had an adaptive pattern of perceptions, use of strategies, learning motives and grade aspiration in mathematics.


Achievement goals Chinese Mathematics Motivation 



The completion of research is partly funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant (DP140101431).

Supplementary material

10763_2016_9780_MOESM1_ESM.doc (521 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 521 kb)


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Copyright information

© Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Learning Sciences Institute AustraliaAustralian Catholic UniversityBrisbaneAustralia

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