Establishing a STEM Pipeline: Trends in Male and Female Enrollment and Performance in Higher Level Secondary STEM Courses


DOI: 10.1007/s10763-015-9693-7

Cite this article as:
Bergeron, L. & Gordon, M. Int J of Sci and Math Educ (2017) 15: 433. doi:10.1007/s10763-015-9693-7


The purpose of this study was to understand enrollment and performance differences between male and females in higher level secondary STEM courses. This study analyzes performance and enrollment of 355,688 secondary students in higher level STEM courses. This research also enabled an exploration of country level differences. The enrollment research questions are evaluated using chi-square tests, frequency tables, and histograms. Performance research questions are analyzed with hierarchical linear regression and ANOVA with post hocs and Cohen’s d effect size measures. Results suggest that females enroll much less frequently in higher level secondary STEM courses. Females and males perform equally well.


Competition Course selection Gender gap Higher level courses HLM STEM 

Supplementary material

10763_2015_9693_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (59 kb)
ESM 1(PDF 59 kb)

Copyright information

© Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational StudiesUniversity of Wisconsin-La CrosseLa CrosseUSA
  2. 2.International Baccalaureate OrganizationBethesdaUSA

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