The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children’s Math Achievement
The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children’s math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math anxiety of parents and their children was measured using the Mathematics Anxiety Scale Short Version (MARS-SV), the Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students (MARS-E), and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A). Math attitude was assessed with the Attitude Towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI). A math achievement test was constructed for each grade level based on their curriculum. Path analyses were conducted to test the suggested conceptual model, and the results indicate that parental math anxiety and math attitude act as precursors to their children’s math anxiety and math attitude and further influence the math achievement of their children.
KeywordsChildren math anxiety Children math attitude Children math achievement Parental role Parental math anxiety and math attitude
- Alkan, V. (2013). Mothers and their relation with pupils’ mathematics anxiety. Global Research Analysis, 2(4), 83–86.Google Scholar
- Ashcraft, M. H., Krause, J. A., & Hopko, D. R. (2007). Is math anxiety a mathematical learning disability? In D. B. Berch & M. M. M. Mazzocco (Eds.), Why is math so hard for some children? (pp. 329–348). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1971). Psychotherapy based upon modelling principle. In A. E. Benguna & S. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. An empirical analysis. New York, NY: Wiley and Sons Inc.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development. Vol. 6. Six theories of child development (Vol. 6, pp. 1–60). Greenwich, England: JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Bramlett, D. C. & Herron, S. (2009). A study of African-American College students’ attitude towards mathematics. Journal of Mathematical Sciences & Mathematical Education, 4(2), 43–51.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. (1998). Structural equation modelling with LISREL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Cai, J., Moyer, J. C., & Wang, N. (1997). Parental roles in students’ learning of mathematics: An exploratory study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
- Cruz, Y. D. L. (2012). Learning math with my father: A memoir. Journal of Unschooling and Alternative Learning, 6(11), 20–33.Google Scholar
- Dahmer, S. L. (2001). What are the relationships between math anxiety and educational level in parents and math achievement in their children? (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN.Google Scholar
- Das, J., & Zajonc. T. (2008). India shining and Bharat drowning: Comparing two Indian states to the worldwide distribution in mathematics achievement. (Working Paper 4644). Retrieved from The World Bank Development Research Group. Human Development and Public Service Group. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/.../wps4644_India.pdf.
- Eccles, J. (1983). Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives. Psychological and sociological approaches. San Francisco, CA: Freeman & Co.Google Scholar
- Ford, M., Follmer, R., & Litz, K. (1998). School-family partnerships: Parents, children, and teachers benefit!. Teaching Children Mathematics, 4(6).Google Scholar
- He, H. (2007). Adolescents’ perception of parental and peer mathematics anxiety and attitude towards Mathematics: A comparative study of European–American and Mainland-Chinese Students (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.dissertations.wsu.edu/Dissertations/Spring2007/h_he_042407.pdf.
- Ho, H. Z., Senturk, D., Lam, A. G., Zimmer, J. M., Hong, S., Okamoto, Y., ...Wang, C. P. (2000). The affective and cognitive dimensions of math anxiety: A cross-national study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31, 362–379.Google Scholar
- Jacobs, J. E., Davis-Kean, P., Bleeker, M., Eccles, J. S., & Malanchuk, O. (2005). I can, but I don’t want to: The impact of parents, interests, and activities on gender differences in math. In A. M. Gallagher & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Gender differences in mathematics: An integrative psychological approach (pp. 246–263). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kleanthous, I. & Williams, J. (2010). Perceived parental influence on students’ mathematical achievement, inclination to mathematics and disposition to study further mathematics. In M. Jourbert & P. Andrews (Eds.), Proceedings of the British Congress for Mathematics Education (BCME) (pp. 129–136). Manchester, England: BCME.Google Scholar
- Leung, K., Lau, S. & Lam, W. (1988). Parenting styles and academic achievement: A cross-cultural study. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 157–172.Google Scholar
- Mohd, N., Mahmood, T. F. P. T., & Ismail, M. N. (2011). Factors that influence students in mathematics achievement. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(3), 49–54.Google Scholar
- Moses, K., Kudzai, C., & Emily, G. (2011). Finger-pointing in mathematics education: Causes of dropouts in high school mathematics in Masvingo urban, Zimbabwe. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 2(6), 498–502.Google Scholar
- Nicolaidou, M. & Philippou, G. (2003). Attitudes towards mathematics, self-efficacy and achievement in problem solving. European Research in Mathematics III. Thematic Group, 2, 1–11.Google Scholar
- Olatunde, Y. P. (2009). Relationship between teachers’ attitude and students’ academic achievement in mathematics in some selected senior secondary school in south western Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 364–369.Google Scholar
- Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009). Database-2009. Retrieved from http://pisa2009.acer.edu.au.
- Pajares. F., & Schunk, D. H. (2010). Improving student achievement in mathematics by promoting positive self beliefs. The National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics Improving Student Achievement Series. Retrieved from http://diplomasnow.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/.../NCSMPositionPaper7.pdf.
- Rainbow, D. J. (2008). The relationship between emotional and social competence of math instructors and math anxiety levels of adult student enrolled in college mathematics courses (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest (3322847).Google Scholar
- Rockliffe, F. (2001). Parental involvement in mathematics education in a Canadian elementary school. Paper presented at the European Research Network about Parents in Education. Netherlands: Rotterdam.Google Scholar
- Rossnan, S. (2006). Overcoming math anxiety. Mathitudes, 1(1), 1–4.Google Scholar
- Schenkel, B. (2009). The impact of an attitude toward mathematics on mathematics performance (Unpublished master’s thesis), Marietta College, Marietta, OH.Google Scholar
- Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modelling (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Shaikh (2013). Mathematics anxiety factors and their influence on performance in mathematics in selected International schools in Bangkok. Journal of Education and Vocational Research, 4(3), 77–85.Google Scholar
- Smith, K. (1995). Positive reinforcement, a proactive intervention for the classroom. Introduction to positive ways of intervening with challenging behavior. Minneapolis, MN: Institute on community integration, College of Education, University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
- Sparks, S. D. (2011). Math anxiety explored in studies. Education Week, 31. Retrieved from ERIC database (EJ930043).Google Scholar
- Stenmark, J. K., Thomson, V. & Cossey, R. (1986). Family math, Lawerence hall of science. Berkeley, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
- Stuart, V. (2000). Math curse/math anxiety? Teaching Children Mathematics, 6(5), 330–335.Google Scholar
- Suinn, M. & Wiston, H. (2003). The mathematics anxiety rating scale: psychometric data. Academic Journal, 92(1), 167–173.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). New York, NY: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Tapia, M. (1996). The attitude toward mathematical Instrument. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Tuscaloosa, AL.Google Scholar
- Thergaonkar, N. R. & Wadkar, A. J. (2007). Relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Journal of Indian Association Child Association Child Adolescent Mental Health, 2(4), 10–12.Google Scholar
- Thomas, H. & Furner, J. M. (1997). Helping high ability students overcome mathematics anxiety through bibliotherapy. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 8(4), 164--179.Google Scholar
- Tobias, S. (1978). Overcoming math anxiety. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
- Tyanck, D. & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering towards utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge, England: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Ullman, J. B. (2001). Structural equation modelling. In B. G. Tabachnick & L. S. Fidell (Eds.), Using multivariate statistics (4th ed., pp. 653–771). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Woodard, T. (2004). The effects of math anxiety on post-secondary developmental students as related to achievement, gender, and age. Inquiry, 9(1), 1–5.Google Scholar
- World Bank (2006). Secondary education in India: Investigating in the future, HD unit, South Asia Region, World Bank, Draft. (Documented in 2009). http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/.../2Amit%20Darsecondary.
- Zakaria, E. & Nordin, N. M. (2008). The effect of mathematics anxiety on matriculation students as related to motivation and achievement. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 4(1), 27–30.Google Scholar