Mathematics-related affect is established regarding both individual and interindividual levels. However, the interaction between the levels has not been elaborated. Furthermore, it is known that people may draw either from intrinsic or extrinsic experiences to construct their identities depending on their cultural environment. Thus, affective individual and interindividual levels seem to interact with culture. In this study we focus on the significance of and the interaction between the individual and the interindividual levels of affect. This is done with respect to 2 different types of countries (Finland and Chile) to include cultural effect. We use questionnaire-based data and pupils’ drawings of their mathematics class to find out about their individual and interindividual experiences. By using mixed data, we are not only getting a wider picture of pupils’ affect but we can also avoid the most typical errors made in the cross-cultural comparisons as the pupils’ own voice is strengthened. The main finding in the study is that the 2 affective levels are not congruent and that the incongruence appears differently in different types of cultures.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
In the previous PISA evaluation, the type of culture (collectivist/independent) seemed not to relate to the degree of correlation between mathematical achievement and intrinsic motivation, neither the degree of correlation between mathematical achievement and extrinsic (“instrumental”) motivation. However, this might be explained by the fact that the correlation was categorically higher regarding students that were high achievers compared with lower-achieving students (OECD, 2010a), as the countries that achieved well in that PISA test had high correlations between both types of motivation and performance independent of the type of the countries’ culture.
The Gini index (or Gini ratio or Gini coefficient) is a measure of the inequality of income distribution in a country; a value of 0 expressing perfect equality where everyone has equal shares of income and a value of 1 expressing maximal inequality where only one person has all the income.
Aronsson, K. & Andersson, S. (1996). Social scaling in children’s drawings of classroom life: a cultural comparative analysis of social scaling in Africa and Sweden. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 301–314.
Bofah, E. A. T., & Hannula, M. S. (2015). Studying the factorial structure of Ghanaian twelfth-grade students’ views on mathematics. In From beliefs to dynamic affect systems in mathematics education (pp. 355-381). Springer International Publishing.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1993). The ecology of cognitive development: Research models and fugitive findings. In R. H. Wozniak & K. W. Fisher (Eds.), Development in context: Acting and thinking in specific environments (pp. 3–44). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chamberlin, S. A. (2010). A review of instruments created to assess affect in mathematics. Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(1), 167–182.
Ciani, K. D., Middleton, M. J., Summers, J. J. & Sheldon, K. M. (2010). Buffering against performance classroom goal structures: the importance of autonomy support and classroom community. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, 88–99.
Cobb, P. & Yackel, E. (1996). Constructivist, emergent and sociocultural perspectives in the context of developmental research. Educational Psychologist, 31(3/4), 175–190.
Dahlgren, A. & Sumpter, L. (2010). Childrens’ conceptions about mathematics and mathematics education. In: K. Kislenko (Ed.) Proceedings of the MAVI-16 conference (pp. 77–88). Estonia: MAVI
Earley, P. C., Gibson, C. B. & Chen, C. C. (1999). How did I do?” versus “how did we do?”. Cultural contrasts of performance feedback use and self-efficacy. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30(5), 594–619.
Evans, J. (2006). Affect and emotion in mathematical thinking. In J. Maasz & W. Schloeglmann (Eds.), New mathematics education and practice (pp. 233–255). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.
Evans, I. M., Harvey, S. T., Bucley, L. & Yan, E. (2009). Differentiating classroom climate concepts: academic, management, and emotional environments. New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 131–146.
Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R. & Goetz, T. (2007). Perceived learning environment and students’ emotional experiences: a multilevel analysis of mathematics classrooms. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 478–493.
Goldin, G. (2002). Affect, meta-affect, and mathematical belief structures. In G. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: a hidden variable in mathematics education? (pp. 59–72). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
Greene, B. A., DeBacker, T. K., Ravindran, B. & Krows, A. J. (1999). Goals, values, and beliefs as predictors of achievement and effort in high school mathematics classes. Sex Roles, 40(5/6), 421–458.
Hannula, M. (2011). The structure and dynamics of affect in mathematical thinking and learning. In M. Pytlak, T. Rowland & E. Swoboda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 34–60). Rzeszów, Poland: ERME.
Hannula, M. S. (2012). Exploring new dimensions of mathematics-related affect: embodied and social theories. Research in Mathematics Education, 14(2), 137-161.
Hannula, M. S., & Laakso, J. (2011). The structure of mathematics related beliefs, attitudes and motivation among Finnish grade 4 and grade 8 students. In Proceedings of the 35th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, Ankara, Turkey: PME.
Harrison, L. J., Clarke, L. & Ungerer, J. A. (2007). Children’s drawings provide a new perspective on teacher-child relationship quality and school adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22, 55–71.
Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self. A developmental perspective. New York, NY: The Guildford Press.
Hofstede, G. & Hofstede, G. J. (2005). Cultures and organizations. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Kearney, K. S. & Hyle, A. (2004). Drawing about emotions: the use of participant-produced drawings in qualitative inquiry. Qualitative Research, 4(3), 361–382.
Kumar, R., Gheen, M. H. & Kaplan, A. (2002). Goal structures in the learning environment and students’ disaffection from learning and schooling. In C. Midgley (Ed.), Goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning (pp. 143–173). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Laine, A., Näveri, L., Pehkonen, E., Ahtee, M. & Hannula, M.S. (2012). Third-graders' problem solving performance and teachers' actions. In T. Bergqvist (ed.): Proceedings of the ProMath meeting in Umeå, 69–81. University of Umeå.
Mägi, K., Lerkkanen, M.-K., Poikkeus, A.-M., Rasku-Puttonen, H. & Kikas, E. (2010). Relations between achievement goal orientations and math achievement in primary grades: a follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(3), 295–312.
Markus, H. & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.
Murphy, P. K., Delli, L. A. M. & Edwards, M. N. (2004). The good teacher and good teaching. Comparing the beliefs of second-grade students, preservice teachers, and inservice teachers. The Journal of Experimental Education, 72(2), 69–92.
Op’t Eynde, P., de Corte, E. & Verschaffel, L. (2002). Framing students’ mathematics-related beliefs. In G. C. Leder, E. Pehkonen & G. Törner (Eds.), Beliefs: a hidden variable in mathematics education? (pp. 13–37). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
Pajares, F. & Miller, M. D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in mathematical problem solving: a path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 193–203.
Partanen, A. M. (2011). Challenging the school mathematics culture: an investigative small-group approach; ethnographic teacher research on social and sociomathematical norms. Acta Universitatis Lapponiensis 206. Rovaniemi, Finland: University of Lapland, Department of Education.
Polychroni, F., C. Hatzichristou, C. & Sideridis, G. (2011). The role of goal orientations and goal structures in explaining classroom social and affective characteristics. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(2), 207–217.
Ramírez, M. (2005). Attitudes toward mathematics and academic performance among Chilean 8th graders. Estudios Pedagógicos, 31, 97–112.
Sumpter, L. (2012). Themes and interplay of beliefs in mathematical reasoning. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11(5), 1115–1135.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010a). PISA 2009 Results: What students know and can do – Student performance in reading, mathematics and science (Volume I). Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/48852548.pdf. Accessed 13 March 2015.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010b). PISA 2009 Results: Overcoming social background—equity in learning opportunities and outcomes (volume II). Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/48852584.pdf
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2011). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD indicators. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/48631582.pdf
Tikkanen, P. (2008). “Helpompaa ja hauskempaa kuin luulin.” Matematiikka suomalaisten ja unkarilaisten perusopetuksen neljäsluokkalaisten kokemana [“Easier and more fun than I thought.” Mathematics experienced by fourth-graders in Finnish and Hungarian comprehensive schools]. Jyväskylä Studies in Education, Psychology and Social Research 337. Jyväskylä, Finland: Jyväskylä University Printing House.
Tuohilampi, L. (2011). An examination of the connections between self discrepancies and effort, enjoyment and grades in mathematics. In M. Pytlak, T. Rowland & E. Swoboda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Seventh Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, (pp. 1239–1248). Rzeszów, Poland: ERME.
Tuohilampi, L., Laine, A., & Hannula, M. S. (2014a). 9-year old students’ self-related belief structures regarding mathematics: a comparison between Finland and Chile. In M. S. Hannula, P. Portaankorva-Koivisto, A. Laine & L. Näveri (eds.): Proceedings of the 18th conference of the mathematical views. Helsinki, Finland: MAVI
Tuohilampi, L., Hannula, M. S., Varas, L., Giaconi, V., Laine, A., Näveri L. & Saló i Nevado, L. (2014b). Challenging western approach to cultural comparisons: young pupils' affective structures regarding mathematics in Finland and Chile. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education. doi:10.1007/s10763-014-9562-9.
Valenzuela, J. P., Bellei, C. & Ríos, D. D. L. (2014). Socioeconomic school segregation in a market-oriented educational system. The case of Chile. Journal of Education Policy, 29(2), 217–241.
Wagner, J. A., III & Moch, M. K. (1986). Individualism-collectivism: concept and measure. Group and Organization studies, 11(3), 280–304.
Zhu, Y. & Leung, F. S. (2011). Motivation and achievement: is there an East Asian model? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9, 1189–1212.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Tuohilampi, L., Laine, A., Hannula, M.S. et al. A Comparative Study of Finland and Chile: the Culture-Dependent Significance of the Individual and Interindividual Levels of the Mathematics-Related Affect. Int J of Sci and Math Educ 14, 1093–1111 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-015-9639-0
- Collectivist cultures
- Cultural comparison
- Cultural significances
- Individual cultures
- Mathematics-related affect