This study is part of a cross-national research entitled In the past and now: Constructivist practices in teaching chemistry—Bulgaria, the Balkans and Europe. The purpose of the research is to explore science secondary classroom environments in terms of the constructivist approach. The study has been carried out at international schools and state schools in Albania, Kosovo, Romania and Turkey. The data collection methods were three surveys: the What Is Happening In This Class? (WIHIC), the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) and the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA). The questionnaires were given to 747 secondary school students. The results show that in the majority of the surveyed classrooms, a blended traditional-constructivist type of environment is present. The highest scores for all three questionnaires were given by students of the international school in Kosovo. The traditional and test-oriented teaching in the Turkish schools surveyed explains the low degree of satisfaction and enjoyment of science lessons among Turkish students.

Key words

constructivist approach cross-national studies learning environment secondary chemistry education 


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Copyright information

© Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Laboratory on Chemistry Education and History and Philosophy of Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and PharmacyUniversity of Sofia “St. Kliment Ohridski”SofiaBulgaria

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