• Kamisah OsmanEmail author
  • Tien Tien Lee


The Electrochemistry topic is found to be difficult to learn due to its abstract concepts involving macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representation levels. Studies have shown that animation and simulation using information and communication technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance their understanding in learning abstract chemistry topics. As a result, an interactive multimedia module with the pedagogical agent (IMMPA) named the EC Lab (Electrochemistry Lab) was developed in order to assist students in the learning of Electrochemistry topics. A non-equivalent pretest–posttest control group design investigation was carried out in order to gauge the effect of the IMMPA EC Lab on students’ understanding and motivation in the learning of Electrochemistry. Some 127 Form Four students from two secondary schools in one of the districts in Malaysia were involved in the study. Each school had one treatment group and one control group taught by the same Chemistry teacher. Instruments involved were a pre- and posttest, a pre- and post-motivation questionnaire, and the IMMPA EC Lab. Results showed a significant difference between the control groups and treatment groups in the understanding of concepts in the learning of Electrochemistry.

Key words

electrochemistry interactive multimedia module pedagogical agent 


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© National Science Council, Taiwan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe National University of MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Education and Human DevelopmentUniversiti Pendidikan Sultan IdrisTanjung MalimMalaysia

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