• Rachel A. LouisEmail author
  • Jean M. Mistele


Typically, mathematics and science are seen as linked together, where both subjects involve numbers, critical thinking, and problem solving. Our study aims to develop a better understanding of the connections between student’s achievement scores in mathematics and science, student gender, and self-efficacy. We used the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 eighth grade data to answer our research questions and were able to demonstrate that when controlling for self-efficacy, there is a statistically significant difference in the achievement scores between males and females by subject, where females score higher Algebra, but males score higher in the other mathematics subjects. Likewise, we were also able to demonstrate that there is a statistically significant difference in the achievement scores in Earth Science, Physics, and Biology, between males and females where males score higher in science subjects. In both mathematics and science examinations, we controlled for self-efficacy where in mathematics females hold lower self-efficacy then males and in science there is no difference between females and males in terms of self-efficacy. We conjecture that mathematics and science classrooms that consider self-efficacy may impact student’s achievement scores by subject, which can ultimately impact career choices in mathematics- and science-based fields.


achievement scores differences by gender self-efficacy subject differences TIMSS 2007 


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Copyright information

© National Science Council, Taiwan 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering EducationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mathematics EducationVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

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