Emotion, Confidence, Perception and Expectation Case of Mathematics

  • Hamide DoganEmail author


Students’ concerns about mathematics can significantly affect their ability to learn the subject. In particular, their anxieties and attitudes can greatly affect how they perceive their own mathematical competence, and in return, this may make them reluctant to pursue mathematical studies. Many researchers believe in the role of active learning environments in reshaping students’ perception of and emotions about mathematics. This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of one such environment. As a result of being exposed to an active learning environment, a group of 21 cohort students showed opinion changes from a pre- to post-survey statements significantly on emotion and noticeably on confidence and perception statements. There was, however, no statistically significant change observed on the opinions of a group of 41 traditional students.


confidence emotion interactive collaborative learning environment mathematics mathematics teachers perception and expectation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ambrose, R. (2004). Initiating change in prospective elementary school teachers’ orientations to mathematics teaching by building on beliefs. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 7(2), 91–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Battista, M. T. (1994). Teachers beliefs and the reform movement in mathematics education. Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 462–463.Google Scholar
  3. Conte, R. (1991). Attention disorders. In B. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (pp. 60–103). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  4. Dogan-Dunlap, H., Dunlap, J., Izquierdo, E. & Kosheleva, O. (2007). Learn by teaching: A mediating approach to teaching and learning mathematics for prospective teachers. IUMPST: The Journal, Vol. 4, April, 2007.Google Scholar
  5. Dogan-Dunlap, H. (2006). Pre-service teachers’ attitude toward and perception of mathematics: Case of a pedagogical approach to teaching and learning. Proceedings of the third international conference on the teaching of mathematics (at the undergraduate level). Istanbul, Turkey. Paper number 430.Google Scholar
  6. Dogan-Dunlap, H. & Ramos, M. (2007). Transitioning from University math education to first year math teacher: Examining data analysis in a qualitative study. In E. Hampton, and S. Peregrino (Eds.) A toolkit for educator research: Research for mutual understanding in diverse communities. Kendall/Hunt Publishing. Chapter 9 pp. 124-142.Google Scholar
  7. Dogan-Dunlap, H. & Liang, H. (2006). “Affect factors: Case of a pedagogical approach for prospective teachers.” Alatorre, S., Cortina J.L., Saiz, M., and Mendez, A. (Eds), Proceedings of the 28th annual meeting of the north american chapter of the international group for the psychology of mathematics education (PME-NA). Research Papers. Mérida, México, Vol.2, pp. 717-723.Google Scholar
  8. Fennema, E. (1989). The study of affect and mathematics: A proposed generic model for research. In D. B. McLeod & V. Adams (Eds.), Affect and mathematical problem solving (pp. 205–220). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Garofalo, J. (1989). Beliefs and their influence on mathematics performance. Mathematics Teacher, 83, 502–505.Google Scholar
  10. Garofalo, J. & Lester, F. K. (1985). Meta-cognition, cognitive monitoring, and mathematical performance. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education., 19, 134–141.Google Scholar
  11. Garrett, E. H. (1967). Statistics in psychology and education. New York: David McKay.Google Scholar
  12. Gray, K. C. (2001). Changing classrooms by treating teachers as active learners. Middle School Journal, 32(3), 15–19.Google Scholar
  13. Hannula, S. M. (2002). Attitude towards mathematics: Emotions, expectations and values. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 49, 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hembree, R. (1990). The nature, effects, and relief of mathematics anxiety. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(1), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ho, H., Senturk, D., Lam, A. G., Zimmer, J. L., Hong, S., Okamoto, Y., Chiu, S.-Y., et al (2000). The affective and cognitive dimensions of math anxiety: A cross-national study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31(3), 362–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hopko, R. D., Ashcraft, H. M., Gute, J., Ruggiero, J. K. & Lewis, C. (1998). Mathematics anxiety and working memory: Support for the existence of a deficient inhibition mechanism. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12(4), 343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mandler, G. (1989). Affect and learning: Causes and consequences of emotional interactions. In D. B. McLeod & V. M. Adams (Eds.), Affect and mathematical problem solving: A new perspective (pp. 3–20). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McDonald, B. A. (1989). Psychological conceptions of mathematics and emotion. In D. B. McLeod & V. M. Adams (Eds.), Affect and mathematical problem solving: A new perspective (pp. 220–234). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. NCTM (1989). Curriculum and evaluation standards for school mathematics. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM).Google Scholar
  20. Pintrich, P. R., Marx, R. W. & Boyle, R. A. (1993). Beyond cold conceptual change: The role of motivational beliefs and classroom contextual factors in the process of conceptual change. Review of Educational Research, 63(2), 167–199.Google Scholar
  21. Ramos, M. (2007). Qualitative data analysis: Practicing with raw data. In E. Hampton & S. Peregrino (Eds.), A toolkit for educator research: Research for mutual understanding in diverse communities, chapter 8 (pp. 100–123). Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Ramos, M. (2006). Do pre-service teachers’ beliefs and classroom practices towards mathematics change when they begin teaching? Master’s thesis, University of Texas at El Paso library, electronic resources no: 6255. May, 2006.Google Scholar
  23. Smith, F. (1964). Prospective teachers’ attitudes toward arithmetic. The Arithmetic Teacher, November issue, pp. 474–477.Google Scholar
  24. Tobias, S. (1993). Overcoming math anxiety. The nature of math anxiety. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  25. Toothaker, L. & Miller, L. (1996). Introductory statistics for the behavioral sciences. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Zentall, S. S. & Zentall, T. R. (1983). Optimal stimulation: A model of disordered activity and performance in normal and deviant children. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 446–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© National Science Council, Taiwan 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Texas at El Paso Mathematical SciencesEl PasoUSA

Personalised recommendations