Advertisement

Resources for Science Learning: Tools, Tasks, and Environment

  • Peter W. HewsonEmail author
Article

Abstract

This article addresses the question of how science learning can be improved. It recognizes that, while learners themselves are responsible for their own learning, the quality of this learning is greatly influenced when appropriate resources are available to learners. These resources are provided through a partnership between teachers and learners. Three different types of resource are discussed. Tools, in the form of computer tools and conceptual tools, make tasks easier and allow learners to undertake tasks they would not otherwise be able to do. Tasks can facilitate effective learning by creating effective spaces for learners to work in, embodying key aspects of the disciplines of science, providing effective and authentic opportunities for learners to learn, and facilitating a dialogue between learners’ ideas and their experiences of the natural world. Environment – the ecology in which learning happens – provides three sources of information through the human, social, and conceptual worlds. When key aspects of these worlds are manifested in the environment, they scaffold the learning of science content, the nature of science, and the learning process itself, all of which are required for the deep understanding of science that constitutes improved science learning.

Keywords

environment resources science learning tasks tools 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baird, J.R. (1990). Metacognition, purposeful enquiry and conceptual change. In Hegarty-Hazel (Ed.), The student laboratory and the science curriculum (pp. 183–200). London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  2. Barron, B.J.S., Schwartz, D.L., Vye, N.J., Moore, A., Petrosino, A., Zech, L., Bransford, J.D. & The Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1998). Doing with understanding: Lessons from research on problem- and project-based learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 7(3&4), 271–311. Google Scholar
  3. Beeth, M.E. & Hewson, P.W. (1999). Learning goals in an exemplary science teacher’s practice: Cognitive and social factors in teaching for conceptual change. Science Education, 83(6), 738–760. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bransford, J., Brown, A.L. & Cocking, R.R. (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school, expanded edn. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Google Scholar
  5. Danielson, C. (1996). Enhancing professional practice: A framework for teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Google Scholar
  6. Doyle, W. (1986). Classroom organization and management. In Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching, 3rd edn (pp. 392–431). New York: Macmillan. Google Scholar
  7. Duckworth, E. (1999). Intellectual development. Washington, DC: Annenberg/CPB. Google Scholar
  8. Duit, R. (Ed.) (2004). Bibliography – STCSE: Students’ and teachers’ conceptions and science education. Kiel, Germany: IPN. Google Scholar
  9. Duschl, R.A. & Gitomer, D.H. (1991). Epistemological perspectives on conceptual change: Implications for educational practice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(9), 839–858. Google Scholar
  10. Flavell, J.H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–235). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Google Scholar
  11. Gaba, D.M. & DeAnda, A. (1988). A comprehensive anesthesia simulation environment: Re-creating the operating room for research and training. Anesthesiology, 69, 387–394. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallagher, J.J. (2000). Teaching for understanding and application of science knowledge. School Science and Mathematics, 100(6), 310–318. Google Scholar
  13. George, Y.S. & Van Horne, V.V. (1996). Science education reform for all. Washington, DC: AAAS. Google Scholar
  14. Gunstone, R.F. (1994). The importance of specific science content in the enhancement of metacognition. In Fensham, Gunstone & White (Eds.), The content of science: A constructivist approach to its teaching and learning (pp. 131–146). Washington, DC: The Falmer Press. Google Scholar
  15. Gustafson, B.J. (1991). Thinking about sound: Children’s changing conceptions. Qualitative Studies in Education, 4(3), 203–214. Google Scholar
  16. Harlen, W. (1998). Teaching for understanding in pre-secondary science. In Fraser & Tobin (Eds.), International handbook of science education (pp. 183–197). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Google Scholar
  17. Hennessey, M.G. (1991). Analysis of conceptual change and status change in sixth graders’ concepts of force and motion. Unpublished Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. Google Scholar
  18. Hewson, P.W. & Hennessey, M.G. (1992). Making status explicit: A case study of conceptual change. In Duit, Goldberg & Niedderer (Eds.), Research in physics learning: Theoretical issues and empirical studies (pp. 176–187). Kiel, Germany: IPN. Google Scholar
  19. Hewson, P.W. & Hewson, M.G.A.B. (1988). An appropriate conception of teaching science: A view from studies of science learning. Science Education, 72(5), 597–614. Google Scholar
  20. Hewson, P.W. & Lemberger, J. (2000). Status as the hallmark of conceptual learning. In Millar, Leach & Osborne (Eds.), Improving science education: The contribution of research (pp. 110–125). Buckingham: Open University Press. Google Scholar
  21. Hewson, P.W. & Thorley, N.R. (1989). The conditions of conceptual change in the classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 11(5), 541–553. Google Scholar
  22. Johnston, K. & Scott, P. (1990). Approaches to teaching the particulate theory of matter [Videotape]. Hatfield: Association for Science Education. Google Scholar
  23. Johnson, S.K. & Stewart, J. (1990). Using philosophy of science in curriculum development: An example from high school genetics. International Journal of Science Education, 12(3), 297–307. Google Scholar
  24. Jungck, J.R. & Calley, J. (1993). Genetics Construction Kit. In Jungck, Soderberg, Calley, Peterson & Stewart (Eds.), The BioQUEST library. College Park, MD: University of Maryland Press. Google Scholar
  25. Kahle, J.B., Rogg, S.R. & Tobin, K.G. (1996). Bridging the gap: Equity in systemic reform. Oxford, OH: Miami University. Google Scholar
  26. Kelly, G.J. & Takao, A. (2002). Epistemic levels in argument: An analysis of university oceanography students’ use of evidence in writing. Science Education, 86(3), 314–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Minstrell, J. (1982). Explaining the “at rest” condition of an object. Physics Teacher, 20, 10–14. Google Scholar
  28. Morgan, P.J., & Cleave-Hogg, D. (2002). A worldwide survey of the use of simulation in anesthesia. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, 49(7), 659–662. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Olsen, T.P. (2000). Student learning and spatial analysis in the classroom. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI. Google Scholar
  30. Palincsar, A.S., Magnusson, S.J., Collins, K.M. & Cutter, J. (2001). Promoting deep understanding of science in students with disabilities in inclusion classrooms. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 24(1), 26–32. Google Scholar
  31. Perkins, D.N. & Simmons, R. (1988). Patterns of misunderstanding: An integrative model for science, math, and programming. Review of Educational Research, 58, 303–326. Google Scholar
  32. Pintrich, P.R., Marx, R.W. & Boyle, R.A. (1993). Beyond cold conceptual change: The role of motivational beliefs and classroom contextual factors in the process of conceptual change. Review of Educational Research, 63(2), 167–199. Google Scholar
  33. Posner, G.J., Strike, K.A., Hewson, P.W. & Gertzog, W.A. (1982). Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change. Science Education, 66(2), 211–227. Google Scholar
  34. Resnick, L.B. (1999). Making America smarter. Education Week Century Series, 18(40), 38–40. Google Scholar
  35. Rolfe, J.M. & Staples, K.J. (1986). Flight simulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  36. Toulmin, S. (1972). Human understanding, Vol. 1: The collective use and evolution of concepts. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  37. Treagust, D.F. (2003). Scientific literacy, meta-cognitive capabilities and explanatory frameworks. Paper presented at the International Conference on Science and Mathematics Learning, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Google Scholar
  38. Wiske, M.S. (Ed.) (1998). Teaching for understanding: Linking research with practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Science Council, Taiwan 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Curriculum and InstructionUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations