Development of a Millimeter-Wave Electron-Spin-Resonance Measurement System for Ultralow Temperatures and Its Application to Measurements of Copper Pyrazine Dinitrate


We have developed a millimeter-wave electron-spin-resonance (ESR) measurement system using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator for the ultralow-temperature range below 1 K. The currently available frequency range is 125–130 GHz. This system is based on a Fabry-Pérot-type resonator (FPR) that is composed of two mirrors. The frequency can be changed by adjusting the distance between the mirrors using a piezoelectric actuator installed at the bottom of the resonator. A homodyne detection system with an InSb detector is built into the low-temperature section of the 3He-4He dilution refrigerator; this system provides high sensitivity. Using this system, we performed ESR measurements on a Heisenberg quantum-spin chain—copper pyrazine dinitrate, Cu(C4H4N2)(NO3)2—over the temperature range from 6.6 down to 0.25 K. The ESR lines change continuously with decreasing temperature. Our results suggest that the ESR spectrum of copper pyrazine dinitrate may be useful as a temperature sensor for the very low-temperature range.

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The authors express sincere thanks to Dr. S. Vasiliev (University of Turku, Finland) for his great effort on constructing ESR system on DR and giving advice on making FPR.


This work is partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 17K05514 and 26400331 and by the Cooperative Research Program of Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui (No. H27FIRDM011E, H28FIRDM024A, H29FIRDM015B).

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Ishikawa, Y., Ohya, K., Fujii, Y. et al. Development of a Millimeter-Wave Electron-Spin-Resonance Measurement System for Ultralow Temperatures and Its Application to Measurements of Copper Pyrazine Dinitrate. J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 39, 288–301 (2018).

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  • Millimeter wave
  • Ultralow temperature
  • ESR
  • Fabry-Pérot-type resonator
  • Copper pyrazine dinitrate
  • Quantum-spin chain
  • Temperature sensor from ESR