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Table 2 Example of EVM measurement uncertainty budget

From: Characterization of a 300-GHz Transmission System for Digital Communications

Component Probability distribution Uncertainty contrib. u i (y) (%)
Impedance U-shaped 0.04
mismatch   
RF flatness Rectangular 0.06
Resolution Rectangular 0.04
Optimal Rectangular 0.02
sample   
Random Gaussian 0.11
noise   
Time base Rectangular 0.01
correction   
Filtering Rectangular 0.03
Amplitude Rectangular 0.05
scaling   
Type A Gaussian 0.36