Advertisement

Q-Band Millimeter Wave Imaging in the Far-Field Enabled by Optical Upconversion Methodology

  • Jesse P. SamlukEmail author
  • Christopher A. Schuetz
  • Thomas Dillon
  • E. Lee SteinJr.
  • Andrew Robbins
  • Daniel G. Mackrides
  • Richard D. Martin
  • John Wilson
  • Caihua Chen
  • Dennis W. Prather
Article

Abstract

Millimeter-wave (mmW) imaging has evolved to the point where it offers distinctive remote sensing capabilities in many application scenarios, such as port and harbor security, search and rescue, and navigational aids, due to its unique ability to penetrate atmospheric obscurants. Some of the applications being considered require passive imaging, imposing challenging sensitivity requirements to detect the low power levels in this spectral region. One metric used in this regard is the noise equivalent power (NEP), which quantifies the sensitivity of a detector. By utilizing a unique detector technology based on optical upconversion a low NEP value is achieved as compared to other RF methods, without the use of cryogenic cooling or low noise amplification. In addition, the overall size and weight may be reduced as compared to other imaging methodologies. As such, the construction and development of a passive mmW imaging system utilizing optical upconversion was undertaken, operating in the Q-Band to collect radiation between 33 and 50 GHz. Herein, we describe the passive mmW imager architecture and operation. Also presented are imaging results obtained using this approach as well as key imager metrics that have been experimentally validated.

Keywords

Millimeter wave Optical upconversion Q-band 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank the Office of Naval Research for their support of this research under grant number N00014-04-1-0616, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Microsystems Technology Office.

References

  1. 1.
    J. Preissner, “The Influence of the Atmosphere on Passive Radiometric Measurements,” AGARD Conference Proc. 245, 48 (1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F.T. Ulaby, R.K. Moore, A.K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Active and Passive, vol. 1, Addison-Wesley, Reading (1981).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. A. Schuetz and D. W. Prather, “Optical Upconversion Techniques for High-Sensitivity Millimetre-Wave Detection,” Proc. SPIE 5619, 166 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. A. Schuetz, J. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, “Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Detection via Optical Upconversion and Carrier Suppression,” IEEE T. Microw. Theory, 53(5), 1732–1738 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications, Wiley, New York (1994).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York (1971).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. A. Schuetz, Optical Techniques for Millimeter-Wave Detection and Imaging, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (2007).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. A. Schuetz, R. D. Martin, I. Biswas, M. S. Mirotznik, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, “Sparse Aperture Millimeter-Wave Imaging Using Optical Detection and Correlation Techniques,” Proc. SPIE 6548, 65480B (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Martin, C. A. Schuetz, T. E. Dillon, C. Chen, J. Samluk, E. L. Stein, Jr., M. Mirotznik, and D. W. Prather, “Design and Performance of a Distributed Aperture Millimeter-Wave Imaging System Using Optical Upconversion,” Proc. SPIE 7309, 730908 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
    E. J. Boettcher, K. Krapels, R. Driggers, J. Garcia, C. Schuetz, J. Samluk, L. Stein, W. Kiser, A. Visnansky, J. Grata, D. Wikner, and R. Harris, “Modeling Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Sensor Performance for Discriminating Small Watercraft,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E58-E66 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Krapels, R. G. Driggers, J. Garcia, E. Boettcher, D. Prather, C. Schuetz, J. Samluk, L. Stein, W. Kiser, A. Visnansky, J. Grata, D. Wikner, and R. Harris, “Millimeter Wave Sensor Requirements for Maritime Small Craft Identification,” Proc. SPIE 7485, 74850H (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. R. Fetterman, J. Grata, G. Jubic, W. L. Kiser, and A. Visnansky, “Simulation, Acquisition and Analysis of Passive Millimeter-Wave Images in Remote Sensing Applications,” Opt. Express, 16(25), 20503–20515 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. A. Wikner and G. Samples, “Polarimetric Passive Millimeter-Wave Sensing,” Proc. SPIE 4373, 86 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. P. Samluk, Millimeter Wave Far-Field Imaging via Optical Upconversion Techniques, Masters Thesis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE (2008).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. P. Samluk, C. A. Schuetz, E. L. Stein, Jr., A. Robbins, D. G. Mackrides, R. D. Martin, C. Chen, and D. W. Prather, “Far Field Millimeter-Wave Imaging via Optical Upconversion,” Proc. SPIE 6948, 694804 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. D. Boreman, Modulation Transfer Function in Optical and Electro-Optical Systems, SPIE, Bellingham (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. L. Stein, Jr., C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, “Development of a Robust Digital Lock-In Algorithm Using a Closed Form Least Squares Method,” Proc. SPIE 7348, 734807 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jesse P. Samluk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher A. Schuetz
    • 2
  • Thomas Dillon
    • 2
  • E. Lee SteinJr.
    • 3
  • Andrew Robbins
    • 4
  • Daniel G. Mackrides
    • 2
  • Richard D. Martin
    • 2
  • John Wilson
    • 1
  • Caihua Chen
    • 5
  • Dennis W. Prather
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA
  2. 2.Phase Sensitive Innovations, IncorporatedNewarkUSA
  3. 3.W. L. Gore & Associates, IncorporatedElectronic Products DivisionLandenbergUSA
  4. 4.Siemens Healthcare DXNewarkUSA
  5. 5.Motorola - Enterprise Mobility Business - Optical Engineering Advanced Data CaptureHoltsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations