Becoming “Rebels” and “Idolaters” in the Valley of Volcanoes, Southern Peru

Abstract

In the mid-eighteenth century around the town of Andagua in the high Southern Peruvian Andes, local indigenous residents nearly incited a rebellion rejecting regional authorities from Arequipa with ancestor cults as a locus of resistance. Subsequently, colonial officials burned ancestral mummies, in attempts to eradicate Andean religious beliefs and practices. Through the use of multiple methods and an archaeological perspective, this article examines how residents became “rebels and idolaters.” Challenging the universal subject and recognizing how subjectivities are historical and particular, I review how identities emerge through the production of places, forming relationships with the landscape across time and space.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Abercrombie, T. (1998). Pathways of Memory and Power. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abrams, P. (1977). Notes on the difficulty of studying the state. Journal of Historical Sociology1: 58–89.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Albornoz, C. (1989 [1582]). Instrucción para descubrir todas las guacas del Pirú y sus camayos y haciendas. In Urbano, H. and Duviols, P. (eds.), Historia 16: 163–198.

  4. Alcock, S., D’Altroy, T., Morrison, K., and Sinopli, C. (eds.) (2001). Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Alconini, S. and Covey, A. (eds.) (2018). The Oxford Handbook of the Incas. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Aldenderfer, M. (ed.) (1993). Domestic Architecture, Ethnicity, and Complementarity in the South-Central Andes. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.

  7. Arkush, E. (2014). I against my brother. In Scherer, A. Verano, J. (eds.), Embattled Bodies, Embattled Places. Dumbarton Oaks Press, Washington DC.

  8. Asad, T. (1993). Genealogies of Religion, Discipline and Reasons of Power in Christianity and Islam. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bauer, B. (1991). Pacariqtambo and the mythical origins of the Inca. Latin American Antiquity2(1): 7–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bauer, B. (1996). Legitimization of the state in Inca myth and ritual. American Anthropologist98(2): 327–337.

  11. Benjamin, W. (1968). Theses on the philosophy of history. In Arendt, H. (ed.), Illuminations. Schocken, New York.

  12. Betanzos, J. (2015 [1551]). Suma y narración de los Incas. In Hernández-Astete, F., Cerrón-Palomino, R. eds., Juan de Betanzos y el Tahuantinsuyu, Nueva Edición de la Suma y Narración de los Incas. Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bhabha, H. (1997). Of mimicry and man, the ambivalence of colonial discourse. In Cooper, F. and Stoler, A. (eds.), Tensions of Empire, Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 152–160.

  14. Bingham, H. (1915). Types of Machu Picchu pottery. American Anthropologist17(2): 257–271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Blower, D. (2000). The many facets of Mullu: more than just a spondylus shell. Andean Past6(11): 209–228.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Boyarin, J. (2009). The Unconverted Self, Jews, Indians, and the Identity of Christian Europe. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  17. Bray, T. (ed.) (2015). The Archaeology of Wak’as, Explorations of the Sacred in the Pre-Columbian Andes. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.

  18. Brooks, S. (1998). Prehistoric Agricultural Terraces in the Rio Japo Basin, Colca Valley, Peru. Doctoral dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison.

  19. Buchli, V. and Lucas, G. (eds.) (2001). Archaeologies of the Contemporary Past. Routledge, London.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Burger, R., Chavez, K. M., and Chavez, S. (2000). Through the glass darkly: Prehispanic obsidian procurement and exchange in southern Peru and sorthern Bolivia. Journal of World Prehistory14(3): 267–362.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Cadena, M. (2015). Earth-Beings: Ecologies of Practice across Andean Worlds. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  22. Chakrabarty, D. (2000). Provincializing Europe, Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

  23. Charles, J. (2010). Allies at Odds, the Andean Church and its Indigenous Agents. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 1583–1671.

  24. Chase, Z. (2015). When is a Wak’a. In Bray, T. (ed.), The Archaeology of Wak’as, Explorations of the Sacred in the Pre-Columbian Andes. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.

  25. Chase, Z. (2018a). Past-forward past making, late pre-Hispanic and early colonial Andean Archaeology. In Swenson, E. and Roddick, A. (eds.), Constructions of Time and History in the Pre-Columbian Andes. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.

  26. Chase, Z. (2018b). The Inca State and Local Ritual Landscapes. In Alconini, S. and Covey, A. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of the Incas. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

  27. Cieza de León, P. (1967 [1553]). El Señorío de los Inkas: Segunda parte de la Crónica del Perú. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Conrad, G. and Demarest, A. (1984). Religion and Empire, the Dynamics of Aztec and Inka Expansionism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  29. Cook, N. D., Medina, A. M., and Bouysse-Cassagne, T. (eds.) (1975 [1582]). Tasa de la Visita General de Francisco de Toledo. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.

  30. Cooper, F. and Brubaker, R. (2005). Identity. In Cooper, F. (ed.), Colonialism in Question: Theory Knowledge and History. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  31. Covey, A. (2006). How the Inkas Built Their Heartland. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

  32. Covey, A. (2008). Multiregional perspectives on the archaeology of the Andes during the late intermediate period (c. AD. 1000-1400). Journal of Archaeological Research16: 287–338.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. D’Altroy, T. (2015). The Inkas. 2nd ed. Blackwell, Malden, MA.

  34. Dawdy, S. (2011). Clockpunk anthropology and the ruins of modernity. Cultural Anthropology51(6): 761–793.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. de la Puente Luna, J. C. (2007). Los Curacas Hechiceros de Jauja, Batallas mágicas y legales en el Perú colonial. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Dean, C. (2010). A Culture of Stone. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  37. Delacour, A., Gerbe, J. C., Thouret, G., Worner, P., and Paquerau-Lebti, P. (2007). Magma evolution of quaternary minor volcanic centres in southern Peru, Central Andes. Bulletin of Volcanology69: 581–608.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Doyle, M. (1988). The Ancestor Cult and Burial in Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Central Peru. Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Los Angeles.

  39. Durston, A. (2007). Pastoral Quechua: The History of Christian Translation in Colonial Peru: 1550–1650. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame.

  40. Duviols, P. (1986). Cultura Andina y Represión: Procesos y Visitas de Idolatrías y Hechicerías. Centro de Estudios Rurales Andinos “Bartolome de las Casas,” Cusco.

  41. Duviols, P. (2003). Procesos y Visitas de Idolatrías: Cajatambo Siglo XVII. Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Lima.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Estenssoro, J.C. (2003). Del Paganismo a la Santidad: La Incorporación de los Indios del Perú al Catolicismo, 1532–1750. Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos, Lima.

  43. Fabian, J. (1983). Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes its Object. Columbia University Press, New York.

  44. Faron-Bartels, R. (2011). Piedras Votivas de Pampacolca: Nuevos Datos sobre las Lajas Pintadas del sur del Perú. Doctoral dissertation, Free University, Berlin.

  45. Fisher, J. (2003). Bourbon Peru, 1750–1824. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.

  46. Fisher, A. and O’Hara, M. (eds.) (2009). Imperial Subjects: Race and Identity in Colonial Latin America. Duke University Press, Durham.

  47. Flores Galindo, A. (2010). In Search of an Inca: Identity and Utopia in the Andes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  48. Foucault, M. (1972). The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse of Language. Pantheon, New York.

  49. Gade, D., and Escobar, M. (1982). Village settlement and the colonial legacy in Southern Peru. Geographical Review72(4): 430–449.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Garrett, D. (2005). Shadows of Empire: The Indian Nobility of Cusco, 1750–1825. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  51. Goggin, J. (1960). The Spanish Olive Jar: An Introductory Study. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, New Haven, CT.

  52. Goldstein, P. (2015). Multiethnicity, pluralism, and migration in the south Central Andes: an alternate path to state expansion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences112(30): 9202–9209.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Gose, P. (1994). Deathly Waters and Hungry Mountains. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

  54. Gose, P. (2008). Invaders as Ancestors. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

  55. Graham, E. (2011). Maya Christians and Their Churches in Sixteenth-Century Belize. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

  56. Guaman Poma de Ayala, F. (2008 [1615]). Nueva Corónica y Buen Gobierno. Pease, F. and Szemiński, J. (eds. and trans.) Fondo de Cultura Económica, Lima.

  57. Hall, M. and Silliman, S. (eds.) (2006). Historical Archaeology. Blackwell, Malden, MA.

  58. Hanks, W. (2010). Converting Words. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  59. Heaney, C. (2018). How to make an Inca mummy: Andean embalming, Peruvian science, and the collection of empire, Isis: A Journal of the History of Science Society, 109(1): 1–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Hoempler, A. (1962). Volcanes de Andahua, Arequipa. Sociedad Geológica del Perú37: 59–69.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Hyslop, J. (1990). Inka Settlement Planning. University of Texas Press, Austin.

  62. Insoll, T. (2004). Archaeology, Ritual, Religion. Routledge, London.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Isbell, W. (1997). Mummies and Mortuary Monuments: A Postprocessual Prehistory of Central Andean Social Organization. University of Texas Press, Austin.

  64. Jamieson, R. (2001). Majolica in the early colonial Andes: the role of Panamanian wares. Latin American Antiquity12(1): 45–58.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Jamieson, R. (2010). Colonialism, social archaeology and lo Andino: historical archaeology in the Andes. World Archaeology37(3): 352–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Jennings, J. (2002). Prehistoric Imperialism and Cultural Development in the Cotahuasi Valley, Peru. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

  67. Jennings, J. (2003). Inka imperialism, ritual change, and cosmological continuity in the Cotahuasi Valley of Peru. Journal of Anthropological Research59(4): 433–462.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Jennings, J., Antrobus, K., Atencio, S., Glavich, E., Johnson, R., Loffler, G., and Luu, C. (2005). Drinking beer in a blissful mood: alcohol production, operational chains, and feasting in the ancient world. Current Anthropology46(2): 275–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Julien, C. (1991). Condesuyo: The Political Division of Territory Under Inka and Spanish Rule. Seminar für Völkerkunde. In Universität Bonn. Bonn, Germany.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Julljuye, V. (2004). Wachalanka, Cuentos, Leyenda e Historia de la Provincia de Castilla y sus distritos. Condor Producciones Culturales, Arequipa, Peru.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Kauffmann-Doig, F., (1992). Pinturas mágicas sobre placas de cerámica (Chucu/ Condesuyos, Arequipa). Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Lima, Peru.

  72. Keane, W. (2007). Christian Moderns, Freedom and Fetish in the Mission Encounter. University of California Press, Berkeley.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Kelloway, S., VanValkenburgh, P., Inanez, J., Dussubieux, L., Quilter, J., and Glascock, M. (2018). Identifying New World majolica from 16th – 18th Century sites on Peru’s north coast. Journal of Archaeological Sciences17: 311–324.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Kennedy, S. and VanValkenburgh, P. (2015). Zooarchaeology and changing food practices at Carrizales, Peru following the Spanish invasion. International Journal of Historical Archaeology20(1): 73–104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Kohn, E. (2013). How Forests Think: Toward an Anthropology beyond the Human. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  76. Kosiba, S. (2015). Of blood and soil: tombs, Wak’as, and the naturalization of social difference in the Inka heartland. In Bray, T. (ed.), The Archaeology of Wak’as, Explorations of the Sacred in the Pre-Columbian Andes. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Kus, S. and Raharijaona, V. (1997). Between earth and sky there are only a few large boulders: Sovereignty and monumentality in central Madagscar. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology17: 53–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Lamana, G. (2008). Domination without Dominance. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  79. Liebmann, M. and Murphy, M. (2011). Enduring Conquests: Rethinking the Archaeology of Resistance to Spanish Colonialism. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.

  80. Linares, Málaga, E. (1988). Arte mobiliar con tradición rupestre en el sur del Perú. Rock Art Research. 5(1), 54–66.

  81. Linares, Málaga E. (1990). Prehistoria de Arequipa. CONCYTEC–UNSA, Arequipa, Peru.

  82. Linares Málaga, E. (1978). Prehistory and petroglyphs in southern Peru. In Browman, D. L. (ed.), Advances in Andean Archaeology. Mouton, Paris, pp. 371–391.

  83. Lock, M. and Farquhar, J. (eds.) (2007). Beyond the Body Proper: Reading the Anthropology of Material Life. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  84. MacCormack, S. (1991). Religion in the Andes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

  85. Malaga, A. M. (1989). Reducciones Toledana en Arequipa. Publiunsa, Arequipa.

    Google Scholar 

  86. Málaga Núñez Zeballos, A. (1994). Archivo Arzobispal de Arequipa: Guía. Universidad de San Agustín, Arequipa.

  87. Mannheim, B. (1991). The Language of the Inka since European Invasion. University of Texas Press, Austin.

  88. Mantha, A. (2009). Territoriality, social boundaries and ancestor veneration in the Central Andes of Peru. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology28: 158–176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Marsilli, M. (2005). El Diablo en familia: herejes, hechiceros e idolatras en Arequipa colonial. In Drinot, P. and Garofolo, L. (eds.), Más Alál de la Dominación y la Resistencia. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.

  90. Marzal, M. (1988). La religión persistente en Andagua a fines del Virreinato. Histórica12(2): 161–181.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Masuda, S., Shimada, I., and Morris, C. (eds.) (1985). Andean Ecology and Civilization: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Andean Ecological Complementarity. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.

  92. Meddens, F., Willis, K., McEwan, C., and Branch, N. (eds.) (2014). Inca Sacred Space, Landscape, Site and Symbol in the Andes. Archetype, London.

  93. Menaker, A. (2011). Beads Throughout the Peruvian Andes: An Archaeological Examination of Meaning and Value during Spanish Colonialism. Master's thesis, University Of Chicago, Chicago.

  94. Menaker, A. (2016). Las cuentas durante el colonialismo Español en los Andes Peruanos. Arqueología Histórica en el Perú, Traslavina, A., Chase, Z., VanValkenburgh, P., Weaver, B. (eds.) Boletín de Arqueología PUCP, 21.

  95. Menaker, A. (In prep). Of Fire and Water: Ideologies and Empires in the Valley of Volcanoes, Andagua, Southern Peruvian Andes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.

  96. Menaker, A. and Falcón Huayta, V. (2016). Proyecto Arqueológico del Valle de Andagua, Regional Survey 2015-2016 Technical Report, Ministry of Culture, Lima, Peru.

  97. Menaker, A. and Falcón Huayta, V. (2017). Proyecto Arqueológico del Valle de Andagua, Excavations 2016 Technical Report, Ministry of Culture, Lima, Peru.

  98. Mignolo, W. (1995). The Darker Side of the Renaissance. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

  99. Millones, L. (1975). Economía y ritual en los condesuyos de Arequipa: pastores y tejedores del Siglo XIX. Allpanchis8: 45–66.

    Google Scholar 

  100. Millones, L. (1990). El retorno de la huacas: Estudios y documentos sobre el Taki Onqoy, siglo XVI. Lima Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.

    Google Scholar 

  101. Mills, K. (1997). Idolatry and its Enemies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

  102. Mumford, J. (2012). Vertical Empire, the General Resettlement of Indians in the Colonial Andes. Duke University, Durham, NC.

  103. Murphy, B. (2017). Terracing, Land Management and Agricultural Soils in the Andagua Valley of the Southern Peruvian Andes. Master's thesis, University of Denver, CO.

  104. Neira Avendaño, M. (1998). Arqueología de Arequipa. Cronos1: 9–50.

  105. Nielsen, A. (2008). The materiality of ancestors, chullpas and social memory in the late prehispanic history of the South Andes. In Mills, B. and Walker, W. (eds.) Memory Work, School for Advanced Research, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 207 – 231.

  106. O’Phelan Godoy, S. (2012). Un Siglo de Rebeliones Anticoloniales, Peru y Bolivia 1700–1783. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima.

    Google Scholar 

  107. Oland, M., Hart, S., and Frink, L. (eds.) (2012). Decolonizing Indigenous Histories. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

  108. Orta, A. (2004). Catechizing Culture, Missionaries, Aymara, and the “New Evangelization.” Columbia Press, New York.

  109. Pagden, A. (1982). The Fall of Natural Man. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

  110. Pagden, A. (1995). Lords of All the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c. 1500–1800. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

  111. Platt, T. (1987). The Andean soldiers of Christ: confraternity organization, the mass of the sun and regenerative warfare in rural Potosi (18th-20th centuries). Journal de la Société des Américanistes73: 139–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  112. Poole, D. (1987). Landscapes of power in a cattle-rustling culture of southern Andean Peru. Dialectical Anthropology12(4): 367–398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  113. Poole, D. (2004). Between threat and guarantee, justice and community in the margins of the Peruvian state. In Veena, D. and Poole, D. (eds.), Anthropology in the Margins. School of American Rresearch Press, Santa Fe.

  114. Rademaker, K. (2012). Early Human Settlement of the High-Altitude Pucuncho Basin, Peruvian Andes. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maine, Orono.

  115. Ramos, G. (2010). Death and Conversion in the Andes, Lima and Cuzco. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN, pp. 1532–1670.

  116. Rappaport, J. and Cummins, T. (2012). Beyond the Lettered City: Indigenous Literacies in the Andes. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  117. Ravines, R. (1970). Piedras pintadas en el sur del Perú. Revista del Museo Nacional35: 312–319.

  118. Reinhard, J. and Constanza Ceruti, M. (2010). Inca Rituals and Sacred Mountains, a Study of the World’s Highest Archaeological Sites. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, Los Angeles.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Rice, P. (1996). The archaeology of wine: the wine and brandy haciendas of Moquegua, Peru. Journal of Field Archaeology (2): 187–204.

    Google Scholar 

  120. Rice, P. (1997). Wine and brandy production in colonial Peru: a historical and archaeological investigation. Journal of Interdisciplinary History27(3): 455–479.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  121. Rice, P. (2012). Torata Alta: an Inka administrative center and Spanish colonial reduccion in Moquegua, Peru. Latin American Antiquity23(1): 3–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  122. Richard, F. (2012). Lost in tradition, found in transition, scales of indigenous history in Siin, Senegal. In Oland, M., Hart, S., and Frink, L. (eds.), Decolonizing Indigenous Histories. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

  123. Rodriguez-Alegría, E. (2005). Eating like an Indian: negotiating social relations in the Spanish colonies. Current Anthropology46(4): 551–573.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  124. Salomon, F. (1982). Chronicles of the impossible: notes on three Peruvian indigenous historians. In Adorno, R. (ed.), From Oral to Written Expression: Native Andean Chronicles of the Early Colonial Period. Syracuse University, Syracuse, pp. 9–33.

  125. Salomon, F. (1987). Ancestor Cults and Resistance to the State in Arequipa, Ca. 1748-1754. In Stern, S. (ed.), Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World: 18 thto 20 thCenturies. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 148–165.

  126. Salomon, F. (1991). Introductory Essay: The Huarochiri Manuscript. In Salomon, F. and Urioste, G. (eds.), The Huarochiri Manuscript. University of Texas Press, Austin, pp. 1–38.

    Google Scholar 

  127. Salomon, F. (1995). The beautiful grandparents: Andean ancestor shrines and mortuary ritual as seen through colonial records. In Dillehay, T. (ed.), Tombs for the Living: Andean Mortuary Practices. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library, Washington, DC.

  128. Salomon, F. (2002). Unethnic ethnohistory: on Peruvian historiography and ideas of autochthony. Ethnohistory49(3): 475–506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  129. Salomon, F. (2015). Turbulent tombs. In Shimada, I. and Fitzsimmons, J. (eds.), Living with the Dead in the Andes. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

  130. Salomon, F. and Niño-Murcia, M. (2011). The Lettered Mountain. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  131. Salomon, F. and Urioste, G. (eds.) (1991). And Trans. The Huarochiri Manuscript: A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion. University of Texas Press, Austin.

  132. Serulnikov, S. (2003). Subverting Colonial Authority: Challenges to Spanish Rule in Eighteenth-Century Southern Andes. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  133. Serulnikov, S. (2013). Revolution in the Andes: the Age of Túpac Amaru. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  134. Shippee, R. (1934). A forgotten valley of Peru. National Geographic Magazine65: 110–132.

  135. Sillar, B., Dean, E., and Pérez Trujillo, A. (2013). My state or yours? Wari "labor camps" and the Inka cult of Viracocha at Raqchi, Cuzco, Peru. Latin American Antiquity24(1): 21–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  136. Silliman, S. (2005). Culture contact or colonialism? challenges in the archaeology of native North America. American Antiquity70(1): 55–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  137. Smith, A. T. (2003). The Political Landscape. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  138. Smith, A. T. (2004). The end of the essential subject. Archaeological Dialogues11(1): 1–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  139. Smith, A. T. (2011). Archaeologies of sovereignty. Annual Review of Anthropology40: 415–432.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  140. Spalding, K. (1984). Huarochirí, An Andean Society Under Inka and Spanish Rule. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

  141. Stein, G. (2005). The Archaeology of Colonial Encounters. School of American Research Press, Santa Fe, NM.

  142. Stern, S. (ed.) (1987). Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World: 18 th to 20 thCenturies. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

  143. Stoler, L. A. (2010). Along the Archival Grain, Epistemic Anxieties and Colonial Common Sense. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

  144. Takahashi, Y. (2012). Gregorio Taco, Cacique Rebelde e Idolatra (Andagua, 1748–1755). Thesis, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.

  145. Thomson, S. (2003). We Alone Will Rule: Native Andean Politics in the Age of Insurgency. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

  146. Thurner, M. (1997). From Two Republics to One Divided: Contradictions of Postcolonial Nationmaking in Andean Peru. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

  147. Traslavina, A., Chase, Z., VanValkenburgh, P., and Weaver, B. (eds.) (2016). Arqueología histórica en el Perú. Boletín de Arqueología PUCP: 20–21.

  148. Tripcevich, N. (2007). Quarries, Caravans, and Routes to Complexity: Pre-Hispanic Obsidian in the South-Central Andes. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

  149. Trouillot, M. (1995). Silencing the Past. Beacon, Boston.

  150. Trouillot, M. (2003). Global Transformations: Anthropology and the Modern World. Palgrave MacMillan, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  151. Urton, G. (1990). History of a Myth: Pacariqtambo and the Origin of the Inkas. University of Texas Press, Austin.

  152. Van Buren, M. (1993). Community and Empire in Southern Peru: The Site of Torata Alta under Spanish Rule. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.

  153. Van Buren, M. (1996). Rethinking the vertical archipelago: ethnicity, exchange, and history in the South Central Andes. American Anthropologist98(2): 338–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  154. Van Buren, M. (2010). The archaeological study of Spanish colonialism in the Americas. Journal of Archaeological Research18: 151–201.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  155. Van Valkenburgh, P. (2012). Building Subjects: Landscapes of Forced Resettlement in the Zana and Chaman Valleys, Peru 16 thand 17 thCenturies. Doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

  156. Van Valkenburgh, P. (2017). Unsettling time: persistence and memory in Spanish colonial Peru. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory24(1): 117-148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  157. Van Valkenburgh, P., Kelloway, S., Dussubieux, L., Quilter, J., and Glascock, M. (2015). The production and circulation of indigenous lead-glazed ceramics in northern Peru during Spanish colonial times. Journal of Archaeological Science61: 172–185.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  158. Voss, B. (2008a). The Archaeology of Ethnogenesis: Race and Sexuality in Colonial San Francisco. University of California Press, Berkeley.

  159. Voss, B. (2008b). Gender, race, and labor in the archaeology of the Spanish colonial Americas. Current Anthropology549(5): 861–893.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  160. Walker, C. (2014). The Tupac Amaru Rebellion. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

  161. Weaver, B. (2015). “Fruit of the Vine, Work of Human Hands”: An Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Slavery on the Jesuit Wine Haciendas of Nasca, Peru. Doctoral dissertation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.

  162. Wernke, S. (2003). An Archaeo-History of Andean Community and Landscape: The Late Prehispanic and Early Colonial Colca Valley, Peru. Doctoral dissertation. University Wisconsin, Madison.

  163. Wernke, S. (2007a). Analogy or erasure? Dialectics of religious transformation in the early doctrinas of the Colca Valley, Peru. International Journal of Historical Archaeology11(2): 152–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  164. Wernke, S. (2007b). Negotiating community and landscape in the Peruvian Andes: a transconquest view. American Anthropologist109(1): 130–152.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  165. Wernke, S. (2010). A reduced landscape: toward a multi-causal understanding of historic period agricultural deintensification in Highland Peru. Journal of Latin American Geography9(3): 51–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  166. Wernke, S. (2011). Convergences: producing early colonial hybridity at a doctrina in Highland Peru. In Liebmann, M. and Murphy, M. (eds.), Enduring Conquests. School for Advanced Research, Santa Fe, NM, pp. 77–101.

  167. Wernke, S. (2013). Negotiated Settlements: Andean Communities and Landscapes under Inka and Spanish Colonialism. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

  168. Wernke, S. (2017). La producción y desestabilización del dominio colonial en el proceso reduccional en el valle del Colca, Perú. In Saito, A. and Rosas Lauro, C., (eds.) Reducciones: La Concentración Forzada de las Poblaciones Indígenas en el Virreinato del Perú. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, pp. 387 – 437.

  169. White, H. (1978). Tropics of Discourse. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

  170. Ziólkowski, M. (2008). Coropuna y Solimana: los oráculos de Condesuyos. In Curatola, M. P. and Ziółkowski, M. (eds.), Adivinación y Oráculos en el Mundo Andino Antiguo. Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, pp. 121–159.

  171. Ziółkowski, M. (2014). The Ushnus of Condesuyos. In Meddens, F., McEwan, C., Willis, K., and Branch, N. (eds.) Inka Sacred Space: Landscape, Site and Symbol in the Andes. Archetype, London, pp. 245–260.

  172. Ziolkowski, M. and Belan Franco, L. (2000). Proyecto Arqueológico Condesuyos, Vol. 1. Universidad de Varsovia, Warsaw.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research was by the National Science Foundation (NSF-DDRIG – SBE, BCS–1540610) and the Department of Anthropology at UT-Austin. Special thanks to Scotti Norman and Sarah Kennedy for organizing the SAA session and volume and reviewers’ comments on the drafts. This work is grateful to a range of additional people and institutions, including but not limited to, the University Nacional de San Agustín, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru, Ministry of Culture – Lima and Arequipa, Archbishop Archive of Arequipa, University of Texas-Austin, Zach Chase, Zev Cossin, Alan Covey, Maria Franklin, Victor Julljuye, Ali Lazaro, Blaise Murphy, Felix Palacios, Frank Salomon, Lucio Taco, Yukyko Takahashi, Steve Wernke. A deep thank you to co-director Victor Falcón Huayta, Kevin Ricci Jarra and all of the members of the Proyecto Arqueológico del Valle de Andagua. A sincere gratitude and indebtedness is owed to the community and municipality of Andagua, the Taco family, and my family. All errors are my own.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexander Menaker.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Menaker, A. Becoming “Rebels” and “Idolaters” in the Valley of Volcanoes, Southern Peru. Int J Histor Archaeol 23, 915–946 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10761-018-0482-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Rebellion
  • Colonialism
  • Ritual
  • Labor
  • Landscape
  • Power
  • Andes