Advertisement

Yörük Legacies: Space, Scent, and Sediment Geochemistry

  • Christina LukeEmail author
  • Christopher H. Roosevelt
  • Catherine B. Scott
Article

Abstract

This paper explores ephemeral landscapes of smell using datasets from ethnographic fieldwork, archaeological survey, and sediment geochemistry in western Anatolia. Our analysis brings together regional datasets from the late Ottoman period to the present to understand the places that mark the transition from the agropastoral migratory lifeways of Yörük tribes to settled communities. We explore one Yörük-legacy (Tekeli tribe) compound to understand ‘settled’ lifeways over three generations, and how study of these legacy traditions may be a valuable contribution to experimental archaeology. Our entry into this discussion is a study of food – its preparation, storage, and consumption – and its associated olfactory landscapes. While ethnography helps determine how aromas define active and contemporary spaces and spheres of intimacy, sediment geochemistry offers a method for investigating archaeologies of aroma.

Keywords

Yörük Manisa Anatolia Karaosomanoğlu Lake Marmara Ethnogaphy Archaeology Smell Phenomenology Sediment Geochemistry Agropastoralism 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Turkey for the opportunity to conduct this research. The Manisa Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography has been a valued partner of the Central Lydia Archaeological Survey and Gygaia Projects. In addition, we thank members of CLAS and the Kaymakçı Archaeological Project (KAP) for their various contributions to this study, including E. Cobb, N. Guathier, E. Moss, C. O’Grady, D. Plekhov, and B. Sekedat. Communities in the Marmara Lake basin have graciously talked with us about their individual and collective histories. Samples were analyzed in Boston University’s Department of Earth & Environment. We thank A. Crowe, an undergraduate research assistant on the project (2013–2014), as well as the laboratory manager J. Sparks and ICP specialist T. Ireland for their guidance. The research has been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF, Awards BCS-0649981 and BCS-1261363), and the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities (Award RZ5155613).

References

  1. Acar, K. (2010). Kuzeybatı Anadolu Manav Türkmen Ağızları Üzerine Birkaç Not. SAÜ Fen Fakültesi Dergisi 2: 1–7.Google Scholar
  2. Akan, M. (2007). Yörüklerde Taşımada Kullanılan Dokumalar. İCANAS 38: 21–43.Google Scholar
  3. Allison, P. (1999). The Archaeology of Household Activities, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  4. Albarella, U., and Trentacoste, A. (2011). EthnoZooArchaeology. The Present and Past of Human–Animal Relationships, Oxbow, Oxford.Google Scholar
  5. Aslan, A. (2009). Determination of heavy metal toxicity of finished leather solid waste. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 82(5): 633–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barba, L. (2007). Chemical residues in lime-plastered archaeological floors. Geoarchaeology 22(4): 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bintliff, J. L., Davies, B., Gaffney, C., Snodgrass, A., and Waters, A. (1992). Trace metal accumulations in soils on and around ancient settlements in Greece. In Spoerry, P. (ed.), Geoprospection in the Archaeological Landscape, Oxbow Monographs, Oxford, p. 17.Google Scholar
  8. Bizbirlik, A., and Çiçek, Y. (2013). XV. Yüzyıl Sonlarında Saruhan Sancağı’nda Piyade Teşkilatı, Yaya Çiftlikleri ve Demografik Yapı. Türkiyat Mecmuası 23: 1–26.Google Scholar
  9. Blitzer, H. (2004). Agriculture and subsistence in the late Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Mesara. In Watrous, L., Hadzi-Vallianou, D., and Blitzer, H. (eds.), The Plain of Phaistos. Cycles of Social Complexity in the Mesara Region of Crete, vol. 23, University of California Press, Monumenta Archaeologica, Los Angeles, pp. 111–127.Google Scholar
  10. Boyd, B. (2002). Ways of eating/ways of being in the later Epipalaeolithic (Natufian) Levant. Thinking through the Body. Springer US, Pp. 137–152.Google Scholar
  11. Bradley, M. (ed.) (2015). Smell and the Ancient Senses. The Senses in Antiquity, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  12. Carey, C. J., Wickstead, H. J., Juleff, G., Anderson, J. C., and Barber, M. J. (2014). Geochemical survey and metalworking: analysis of chemical residues derived from experimental non-ferrous metallurgical processes in a reconstructed roundhouse. Journal of Archaeologial Science 49: 383–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ceylan, M. A. (2005). Dibek-Çomaklı Dağı (Manisa) Çevresinin Doğal Ortam Özellikleri ve Dam Yerleşimlerine Etkileri. Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi 10: 135–68.Google Scholar
  14. Chandler, R. (1817). Travels in Asia Minor. London.Google Scholar
  15. Classen, C., Howes, D., and Synnott, A. (1994). Aroma: The Cultural History of Smell, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  16. Cook, S. R., Clarke, A. S., and Fulford, M. G. (2005). Soil geochemistry and detection of early Roman precious metal and copper alloy working at the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampshire, UK). Journal of Archaeological Science 32(5): 805–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook, S. R., Banerjea, R. Y., Marshall, L., Fulford, M., Clarke, A., and van Zwieten, C. (2010). Concentrations of copper, zinc and lead as indicators of hearth usage at the Roman town of Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampshire, UK). Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 871–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook, S. R., Clarke, A. S., Fulford, M. G., and Voss, J. (2014). Characterizing the use of urban space: a geochemical case study from Calleva Atrebatum (Silchester, Hampsire, UK) Insula IX during the late first/early second century AD. Journal of Archaeologial Science 50: 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cook, D. E., Kovacevich, B., Beach, T., and Bishop, R. (2006). Deciphering the inorganic chemical record of ancient human activity using ICP-MS: a reconnaissance study of late Classic soil floors at Cancuén, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 628–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coronel, E. G., Hutson, S., Magnoni, A., Balzotti, C., Ulmer, A., and Terry, R. E. (2015). Geochemical analysis of Late Classic and Post Classic Maya marketplace activities at the Plazas of Cobá, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 40(1): 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Counihan, C., and Van Esterik, P. (eds.) (1997). Food and Culture: A Reader, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  22. Covington, A. D. (1997). Modern tanning chemistry. Chemical Society Reviews 26(2): 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis, J. (1991). Contributions to a Mediterranean rural archeology: historical case studies from the ottoman Cyclades. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 4: 131–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Day, J. (ed.) (2013). Making Senses of the Past: Toward a Sensory Archaeology. Center for archaeological investigations, Southern Illinois University Carbondale and Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Dirix, K., Muchez, P., Degryse, P., Kaptijn, E., Mušič, B., Vassilieva, E., and Poblome, J. (2013). Multi-Element Soil Prospection Aiding Geophysical and Archaeological Survey on an Archaeological Site in Suburban Sagalassos (SW-Turkey). Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 2961–2970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Durmaz, S. (1996). Gölmarmara Türk Devri Yapıları, Lisans Tezi. Selçuk Universitesi. Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi. Arkeoloji-Sanat Tarihi Bölümü, Konya.Google Scholar
  27. Düring, B. S., and Marciniak, A. (2005). Households and communities in the central Anatolian Neolithic. Archaeological Dialogues 12(2): 165–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eidt, R. C. (1977). Detection and examination of anthrosols by phosphate analysis. Science 197(4311): 1327–1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foss, C. (1976). Byzantine and Turkish Sardis, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gauss, R. K., Bátora, J., Nowaczinski, E., Rassmann, K., and Schukraft, G. (2013). The early bronze age settlement of Fidvár, Vráble (Slovakia): reconstructing prehistoric settlement patterns using portable {XRF}. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(7): 2942–2960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Girgin, M., and Güner, İ. (2002). Salihli-Gördes Arasındaki Dam Yerleşmelerinde Fonksiyon Değişmeleri. Doğu Coğrafya Dergisi 7: 47–67.Google Scholar
  32. González-Martín, I., Hernández-Hierro, J. M., Revilla, I., Vivar-Quintana, A., Lobos-Ortega, I., and González-Pérez, C. (2009). Changes in the mineral content in cheeses of different compositions during 6 months of ripening. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 27: S114–S118.Google Scholar
  33. Gökbunar, A. R. (2003). Osmanlı Devletinde Yörüklerin Göçerlikten Yerleşik Yaşama Geçirilmesinde Uygulanan Vergi Politikalar Ve Sosyal Sonuçlar. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 1(2): 59–66.Google Scholar
  34. Gülten, S. (2009). Batı Anadolu’da Bi̇r Yörük Grubu: XVI. Yüzyılda Karaca Koyunlar. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 12(22): 192–215.Google Scholar
  35. Gosden, C. (2001). Making sense: archaeology and aesthetics. World Archaeology 33(2): 163–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamilakis, Y. (2014). Archaeology and the Senses: Human Experience, Memory, and Affect, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  37. Hart, K. (2007). Weaving modernity, commercializing carpets: collective memory and contested tradition in örselli village. In Özyürek, E. (ed.), The Politics of Public Memory in Turkey, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, pp. 16–39.Google Scholar
  38. Haslam, R., and Tibbett, M. (2004). Sampling and analyzing metals in soils for archaeological prospection: a critique. Geoarchaeology 19(8): 731–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Herzfeld, M. (1989). Anthropology Through the Looking-Glass: Critical Ethnography in the Margins of Europe. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Herzfeld, M. (1986). Ours Once more: Folklore, Ideology, and the Making of Modern Greece. Pella Publishing Company, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Hjulström, B., and Isaksson, S. (2009). Identification of activity area signatures in a reconstructed Iron Age house by combining element and lipid analyses of sediments. Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 174–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hodder, I. (1982). Symbols in Action: Ethnoarchaeological Studies of Material Culture. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hodder, I. (1985). Boundaries as strategies: an ethnoarchaeological study. The Archaeology of frontiers and boundaries, 141–59.Google Scholar
  44. Hutson, S. R., and Terry, R. E. (2006). Recovering social and cultural dynamics from plaster floors: chemical analyses at ancient chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 391–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. İnalcık, H. (2014). The Yörüks: their origins, expansion and economic role. Cedrus II: 467–95.Google Scholar
  46. Johnson, M. H. (2012). Phenomenoligical approaches in landscape archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology 41: 269–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kardulias, P. N. (ed.) (2015). The Ecology of Pastoralism, University of Colorado Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
  48. Kasaba, R. (2009). A moveable empire: Ottoman nomads, migrants, and refugees, University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  49. King, S. M. (2008). The spatial organization of food sharing in early postclassic households: an application of soil chemistry in ancient Oaxaca, Mexico. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 1224–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Knudson, K. J., and Frink, L. (2010). Ethnoarchaeological analysis of arctic fish processing: chemical characterization of soils on nelson island, Alaska. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 769–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kosiba, S., and Bauer, A. M. (2013). Mapping the political landscape: toward a GIS analysis of environmental and social difference. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20(1): 61–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luke, C., and Cobb, E. (2013). Dwelling in Hacıveliler: social engineering policies in the context of space, place and landscape in rural, western Turkey. Anatolian Studies 63: 155–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Macphail, R. I., Cruise, G. M., Allen, M. J., Linderholm, J., and Reynolds, P. (2004). Archaeological soil and pollen analysis of experimental floor deposits; with special reference to Butster ancient farm, Hampshire, UK. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Manzanilla, L. (1996). Corporate groups and domestic activities at Teotihuacan. Latin American Antiquity 7(3): 228–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mendil, D. (2006). Mineral and trace metal levels in some cheese collected from Turkey. Food Chemistry 96: 532–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Metheny, K. B., and Beaudry M. C. (eds.) (2015). Archaeology of Food: An Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, US.Google Scholar
  57. Middleton, W. D., and Price, T. D. (1996). Identification of activity areas by multi-element characterization of sediments from modern and archaeological house floors using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. Journal of Archaeological Science 23: 673–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Misarti, N., Finney, B. P., and Maschner, H. (2011). Reconstructing site organization in the eastern Aleutian islands, Alaska using multi-element chemical analysis of soils. Journal of Archaeological Science 38: 1441–1455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Murray, P., and Kardulias, P. N. (1986). A modern-site survey in the Argolid, Greece. Journal of Field Archaeology 13: 21–41.Google Scholar
  60. Nabhan, P. G. (2014). Cumin, Camels, and Caravans: A Spice Odyssey. University of California Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  61. Nagata, Y. (1976). Some Documents on the Big Farms of the Notables in Western Anatolia, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  62. Nagata, Y. (1997). Tarihte Ayanler: Karaosmanoğlulları Üzerinde bir inceleme, Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara.Google Scholar
  63. Nelson, E. S. (2014). Intimate landscapes: the social nature of the spaces between. Archaeological Prospection 21(1): 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nolan, K. C. (2010). Multi-Staged Analysis of the Reinhardt Village Community: A Fourteenth Century Central Ohio Community in Context. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Ohio.Google Scholar
  65. Öçalan, M. (2006). Sakarya-İzmit Yöresi Yerleşik Türkmenleri (Manav) Ağızlarında Ötümsüz Patlayıcı Ünsüz Değişmeleri. I. Uluslararası Kocaeli ve Çevresi Kültür Sempozyumu, 20–22 Nisan, 2006. Kocaeli Üniversitesi.Google Scholar
  66. Parnell, J. J. (2001). Soil Chemical Analysis of Activity Areas in the Archaeological Site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala, Masters Thesis, Brigham Young University, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture.Google Scholar
  67. Parnell, J. J., Terry, R. E., and Nelson, Z. (2002). Soil chemical analysis applied as an interpretive tool for ancient human activities in piedras negras, Guatemala. Journal of Archaeologial Science 29(4): 379–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pawlowska, K. (2014). The smells of Neolithic Çatalhöyük, Turkey: Time and space of human activity. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 36: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Paxson, H. (2010). Locating value in artisan cheese: reverse engineering terroir for new‐world landscapes. American Anthropologist 112(3): 444–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Paxson, H., and Helmreich, S. (2014). The perils and promises of microbial abundance: Novel natures and model ecosystems, from artisanal cheese to alien seas. Social Studies of Science 44(2): 165–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pierce, C., Adams, K. R., and Stewart, J. D. (1998). Determining the fuel constituents of ancient hearth Ash Via ICP-AES analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 493–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pluckhahan, T. J. (2010). Household archaeology in the Southeastern United States: History, trends, and challenges. Journal of Archaeological Resarch 18: 331–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Özacar, M., and Ayhan Sengil, I. (2002). The use of tannins from Turkish acorns(valonia) in water treatment as a coagulant and coagulant aid. Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences 26(3): 255–263.Google Scholar
  74. Robin, C. (2002). Outside of houses The practices of everyday life at Chan Nòohol, Belize. Journal of Social Archaeology 2(2): 245–268.Google Scholar
  75. Roosevelt, C. H., and Luke, C. (2008). Central Lydia Archaeological Survey: 2006 Results. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 25(3): 305–326. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  76. Roosevelt, C. H., and Luke, C. (2009). Central Lydia Archaeological Survey: 2007 Results. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 26(2): 433–450. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  77. Roosevelt, C. H., and Luke, C. (2010). Central Lydia Archaeological Survey: 2008 Results. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 27(2-1): 1–24. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  78. Roosevelt, C. H., and Luke, C. (2011). Central Lydia Archaeological Survey: 2009 Results. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 28(3): 55–74. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  79. Roosevelt, C. H., and Luke, C. (2012). Central Lydia Archaeological Survey: 2010 Results. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 29(1): 383–400. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  80. Roosevelt, C. H., Luke, C., Cobb, P., O’Grady, C., and Sekedat, B. (2013). The Central Lydia Archaeological Survey: 2011 Work at Kaymakçı and in the Marmara Lake Basin. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 30(1): 237–254. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  81. Roosevelt, C. H., Luke, C., Cobb, P., O’Grady, C., and Sekedat, B. (2014). The central Lydia archaeological survey: 2012 work at Kaymakçı and in the Marmara Lake Basin. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 31(1): 333–355. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  82. Roosevelt, C. H., Luke, C., Cobb, P., and Sekedat, B. (2015). The central Lydia archaeological survey: 2013 work at Kaymakçı and in the Marmara Lake Basin. Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı 32(2): 239–258. T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı.Google Scholar
  83. Roux, V. (2013). Ethnoarchaeology in France: trends and perspectives. In Marciniak, A., and Yalman, N. (eds.), Contesting Ethnoarchaeologies: Traditions, Theories, Prospects, Springer, New York, pp. 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shahack-Gross, R., Simons, A., and Ambrose, S. H. (2008). Identification of pastoral sites using stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes from bulk sediment samples: a case study in modern and archaeological pastoral settlements in Kenya. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(4): 983–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sullivan, K. A., and Kealhofer, L. (2004). Identifying activity areas in archaeological soils from a colonial Virginia house lot using phytolith analysis and soil chemistry. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 1659–1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Takaoğlu, T. (2007). Ethnoarchaeology in Turkey: a historical approach. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations in Rural Anatolia 1: 15–37.Google Scholar
  87. Takaoğlu, T. (2013). The living ottoman past: rethinking ethnoarchaeology in Turkey. In Marciniak, A., and Yalman, N. (eds.), Contesting Ethnoarchaeologies: Traditions, Theories, Prospects, Springer, New York, pp. 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Takaoğlu, T., and Bamyacı, A. O. (2005). Continuity and change in rural land use on Tenedos/Bozcaada. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations in Rural Anatolia 2: 113–136.Google Scholar
  89. Terry, R. E., Hardin, P. J., Houston, S. D., Nelson, S. D., Jackson, M. W., Carr, J., and Parnell, J. (2000). Quantitative phosphorus measurement: a field test procedure for archaeological site analysis at piedras negras, Guatemala. Geoarchaeology 15(2): 151–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Twiss, K. (2012). The archaeology of food and social diversity. Journal of Archaeological Research 20: 357–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Twiss, K. C. (2007). Home is where the hearth is: food and identity in the Neolithic Levant. In Twiss, K. C. (ed.), The Archaeology of Food and Identity, Occasional Paper No. 34, Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, pp. 50–68.Google Scholar
  92. Ullrich, J. (2012). Geochemistry, archaeology and reinterpreting Irish promontory forts. Archaeological Review from Cambridge 27(1): 47–65.Google Scholar
  93. Wilk, R. R., and Rathje, W. L. (1982). Household archaeology. American Behavioral Scientist 25(6): 617–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wilson, C. A., Davidson, D. A., and Cresser, M. S. (2005). An evaluation of multielement analysis of historic soil contamination to differentiate space use and former function in and around abandoned farms. The Holocene 15(7): 1094–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Woods, W. I. (1977). The quantitative analysis of soil phosphate. American Antiquity 42(2): 248–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yalman, N. (2013). Evaluating and establishing ethnoarchaeological theory for Anatolia. In Marciniak, A., and Yalman, N. (eds.), Contesting Ethnoarchaeologies: Traditions, Theories, Prospects, Springer, New York, pp. 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yüzbaşı, N., Sezgin, E., Yıldırım, M., and Yıldırım, Z. (2003). Survey of lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc in Kaşar cheese. Food Additives and Contaminants 20(5): 464–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina Luke
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Christopher H. Roosevelt
    • 2
    • 3
  • Catherine B. Scott
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Archaeology and History of Art DepartmentKoç UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Research Center for Anatolian StudiesKoç UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Boston UniversityBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations