International Journal of Historical Archaeology

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 502–551 | Cite as

Hide, Tallow and Terrapin: Gold Rush-Era Zooarchaeology at Thompson’s Cove (CA-SFR-186H), San Francisco, California

  • Cyler ConradEmail author
  • Kenneth W. Gobalet
  • Kale Bruner
  • Allen G. Pastron


Zooarchaeological investigations at Thompson’s Cove, San Francisco, a Gold Rush-era site located on the original shoreline of Yerba Buena Cove, provide evidence of the maritime California hide and tallow trade, consumption of abundant wild game, including seasonal hunting of migratory ducks and geese, and importation of non-native species into Alta California, specifically Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis sp.) and sea turtle (Family Cheloniidae). This abundant and diverse assemblage (NISP = 8661, NTAXA = 50) dating primarily to the 1840s–60s allows rigorous investigations into the economic and subsistence activity of San Francisco in a stratified context encompassing the California Gold Rush-era.


Gold rush San Francisco Zooarchaeology Thompson’s Cove 



We are extremely grateful for the assistance provided by numerous individuals during the course of this research. Our thanks extend to Chris Conroy, Carla Cicero, and Carol Spencer, at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, Jens Vindum at the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, and Teresa Steele and Christyann Darwent at the University of California, Davis, for providing access to comparative collections. A further note of gratitude is extended to Teresa Steele for her very helpful Galapagos tortoise identification advice, and Jeanette Wyneken for her insightful sea turtle expertise. Mike Etnier, Jacob Fisher, Adam Freeburg, Lisbeth Louderback, Terry Swanson, Palo Viscardi, and Chris Widga provided valuable comments and suggestions during the identification and analysis process. Special thanks extend to Sherri Gust and Jim Delgado for their knowledgeable assistance in better understanding Spanish and Euro-American cattle and California Gold Rush history, respectively. Furthermore, thank you to Mike Kelly for sharing insights and data from the 343 Sansome Street Project. Thanks extend to the Archeo-Tec crew including Michelle Touton-Staley, Emily Wick, Elise Christensen, Austen Wianecki, Melissa Lewis, Caitlin Chang, Lacey Babnik, Guido Pezzarossi and Danielle Brown for all of the work and support put into the completion of this project. Finally, C. Conrad personally thanks Emily Jones for her encouragement, support and comments on previous drafts of this manuscript. Two anonymous reviews also provided invaluable comments for which we are grateful. We take full responsibility for any errors or omissions in this work.


  1. Adams, B., and Crabtree, P. (2011). Comparative Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Guide of Common North American Animals, Elsevier Science, Burlington.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, M. S. (2007). Three millennia of human and sea turtle interactions in Remote Oceania. Coral Reefs 26: 959–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almeida-Neto, M., Guimaraes, P. R., Guimaraes Jr., P. R., Loyola, R., and Ulrich, W. (2008). A consistent metric for nestedness analysis in ecological systems: reconciling concept and measurement. Oikos 117: 1227–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambro, R.D. (2003). They Danced in the Plaza: The Historical Archaeology of Notre Dame Plaza, Mission San Francisco de Asis (Dolores), 347 Dolores Street, San Francisco, California. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1850). Cargo of the ship Carthage. Daily Alta California February 19.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (1855). San Francisco marine list. California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences May 17.Google Scholar
  7. Atmar, W., and Patterson, B. D. (1993). The measure of order and disorder in the distribution of species in fragmented habitat. Oecologia 96: 373–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balkwill, D., and Cumbaa, S. (1992). A Guide to the Identification of Postcranial Bones of Bos Taurus and Bison Bison, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  9. Bancroft, H. H. (1886). History of California, 1846–1848, vol. 5, History Company, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  10. Bancroft, H. H. (1888). History of California, 1848–1859, vol. 6, History Company, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  11. Barone, R. (1966). Anatomie Compare Des Mammifores Domestiques 1, Osteologie, Ecole Nationale Veterinaire, Laboratoire d’anatomie, Lyon.Google Scholar
  12. Boessneck, J. (1970). Osteological differences between sheep (Ovis aries Linne) and goat (Capra hircus Linne). In Brothwell, D., and Higgs, E. (eds.), Science in Archaeology: A Survey of Progress and Research, Praeger, New York, pp. 331–358.Google Scholar
  13. Bojanus, L. H. (1819). Anatome Testudinis Europaeae. Accedunt T. Vilnae, Impensis Auctoris.Google Scholar
  14. Broughton, J. (1994). Declines in mammalian foraging efficiency during the Late Holocene, San Francisco Bay, California. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 13: 371–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Broughton, J. M., Cannon, M. D., Bayham, F. E., and Byers, D. A. (2011). Prey body size and ranking in zooarchaeology: theory, empirical evidence, and applications from the northern Great Basin. American Antiquity 76: 403–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Broughton, J. M., Beck, R. K., Coltrain, J. B., O’Rourke, D. H., and Rogers, A. R. (2012). A Late Holocene population botteleck in California tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes): provisional support from ancient DNA. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20(3): 495–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, C., and Gustafson, C. (1979). A Key to Postcranial Skeletal Remains of Cattle/bison, Elk, and Horse, Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.Google Scholar
  18. Bruford, M., Bradley, D., and Luikart, G. (2003). DNA markers reveal the complexity of livestock domestication. Nature 4: 900–910.Google Scholar
  19. Cannon, M. D. (1999). A mathematical model of the effects of screen size on zooarchaeological relative abundance measures. Journal of Archaeological Science 26: 205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cannon, M. D. (2001). Archaeofaunal relative abundance, sample size, and statistical methods. Journal of Archaeological Science 28: 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cannon, M. D. (2013). NISP, bone fragmentation, and the measurement of taxonomic abundance. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20: 397–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caton, J. D. (1877). The Wild Turkey and its domestication. The American Naturalist 11(6): 321–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chambers, P. (2006). A Sheltered Life: The Unexpected History of the Giant Tortoise, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Chartkoff, J. L., and Chartkoff, K. K. (1984). The Archaeology of California, Stanford University Press, Stanford.Google Scholar
  25. Chavez, A. (2008). Comparative vertebral morphology in medium-sized North American Artiodactyla. The Artifact 46: 1–17.Google Scholar
  26. Chotkowski, M. (1999). List of fishes found in San Francisco Bay-Delta shallow water habitats. Interagency Ecological Program Newsletter 12(3): 12–18.Google Scholar
  27. Clemens, W.A., and Wilby, G.V. (1961). Fishes of the Pacific Coast of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada Bulletin No. 68, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  28. Cogswell, H. (1977). Water Birds of California, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, A. N., and Carlton, J. T. (1998). Accelerating invasion rate in highly invaded estuary. Science 279: 555–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, A., and Serjeantson, D. (1996). A Manual for the Identification of Bird Bones from Archaeological Sites, Archetype, London.Google Scholar
  31. Conrad, C., Bruner, K. and Pastron, A. G. (2015). Anthropogenic Contamination in Gold Rush-Era Native Pacific Oysters (Ostrea lurida Carpenter 1864) from Thompson’s Cove (CA-SFR-186H), San Francisco, California. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 3: 188–193. doi: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.06.009.
  32. Conrad, C., and Pastron, A. (2014). Galapagos tortoises and sea turtles in Gold Rush-Era California. California History 91(2): 98–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dana, R. H. (1869). Two Years Before the Mast, Harper and Brothers, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Davis, W. H. (1967). Seventy-Five Years in California, John Howell, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  35. Dawson, D., Brooks, D. R., and Allan, W. L. (1923). The Birds of California: A Complete, Scientific and Popular Account of the 580 Species and Subspecies of Birds Found in the State, South Moulton, San Diego.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Delgado, J. (2009). Gold Rush Port: The Maritime Archaeology of San Francisco’s Waterfront, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  37. Duhaut-Cilly, A. (1999). A Voyage to California and the Sandwich Islands, and Around the World in the Years 1826–1829, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  38. Eder, T. (2005). Mammals of California, Lone Pine, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  39. Ford, P. (1990). Antelope, deer, bighorn sheep and mountain goats: a guide to the carpals. Journal of Ethnobiology 10: 169–181.Google Scholar
  40. France, D. L. (2009). Human and Nonhuman Bone Identification: A Color Atlas, CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  41. Frazier, J. (2003). Prehistoric and Ancient Historic Interactions between Humans and Marine Turtles. In Lutz, P. L., Musick, J. A., and Wyneken, J. (eds.), Biology of Sea Turtles, vol. II, CRC Press, FL, pp. 1–38.Google Scholar
  42. Gilbert, B. M. (1980). Mammalian Osteology. Self-published, Laramie.Google Scholar
  43. Gilbert, B. M., Martin, L. D., and Savage, H. G. (1981). Avian Osteology. Self-published, Laramie.Google Scholar
  44. Gobalet, K. W., Schulz, P. D., Wake, T. A., and Siefkin, N. (2004). Archaeological perspectives on Native American fisheries of California with emphasis on steelhead and salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 133: 801–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Grayson, D. K. (1984). Quantitative Zooarchaeology: Topics in the Analysis of Archaeological Faunas, Academic, Seattle.Google Scholar
  46. Grayson, D. K. (1991). Alpine faunas from the White Mountains, California: adaptive change in the Late Prehistoric Great Basin? Journal of Archaeological Science 18: 483–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Grayson, D. K., and Delpech, F. (1998). Changing diet breadth in the early Upper Palaeolithic of southwestern France. Journal of Archaeological Science 25: 1119–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grenfell, W. E., and Laudenslayer, W. F. (1983). The Distribution of California Birds, US Department of Agriculture, Pacific Southwest Region, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  49. Guimaraes Jr., P. R., and Guimaraes, P. R. (2006). Improving the analyses of nestedness for large sets of matrices. Environmental Modeling and Software 21: 1512–1513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gunther, A. (1875). Description of the living and extinct races of gigantic land-tortoises, parts I and II introduction, and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 165: 251–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gust, S. M. (1982). Faunal analysis and butchering. In Frierman, J. D. (ed.), The Ontiveros Adobe: Early Rancho Life in Alta California, Greenwood and Associates, Santa Fe Springs.Google Scholar
  52. Gust, S. M. (1983). Problems and prospects in nineteenth century California zooarchaeology. In Ward, A. E. (ed.), Forgotten Places and Things: Archaeological Perspectives on American History, Center for Anthropological Studies, Albuquerque, pp. 341–348.Google Scholar
  53. Hakel, S. W. (2005). Children of the Coyote, Missionaries of Saint Francis: Indian-Spanish Relations in Colonial California, 1769–1850, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  54. Hart, J. L. (1973). Pacific Fishes of Canada, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  55. Hillson, S. (1986). Teeth, 2nd ed, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  56. Hillson, S. (2005). Mammal Bones and Teeth: An Introductory Guide to Methods of Identification, Henry Ling, Dorchester.Google Scholar
  57. Johnston, K. M. (1964). San Francisco as It Is: Being Gleanings from the Picayune 1850–1852, Talisman Press, Georgetown.Google Scholar
  58. Jones, E. L. (2004). Dietary evenness, prey choice, and human-environment interactions. Journal of Archaeological Science 31: 307–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jones, E. L. (2013). Subsistence change among the 17th-century Diné? A reanalysis of the faunas from the Fruitland data recovery project. Journal of Ethnobiology 33: 148–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jones, E. L. (2015). Archaeofaunal evidence of human adaptation to climate change in Upper Paleolithic Iberia. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 2: 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Josselyn, M. (1983). The Ecology of San Francisco Bay Tidal Marshes: A Community Profile Final Report, Division of Biological Services, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington.Google Scholar
  62. Kelly, M. (1989). Archaeological Investigations at an 1851 Commercial Site Along Howison’s Pier San Francisco, California, 343 Sansome Street, Final Report. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  63. Kendall, J. (1935). A Landsman’s Voyage to California. Privately published, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  64. Kittinger, J. N., Van Houtan, K. S., McClenachan, L. E., and Lawrence, A. L. (2013). Using historical data to asses the biogeography of population recovery. Ecography 36: 868–872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kurlansky, M. (1997). Cod, a Biography of the Fish that Changes the World, Penguin, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Love, M. (2011). Certainly More Than You Want to Know About the Fishes of the Pacific Coast, Really Big Press, Santa Barbara.Google Scholar
  67. Lyman, L. (1994). Vertebrate Taphonomy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lyman, L. (2008). Quantitative Paleozoology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Magurran, A. E. (2004). Measuring Biological Diversity, Blackwell, Malden.Google Scholar
  70. Maschner, H., Betts, M., Schou, C., Schlader, R., Clement, N., Holmes, J., Smuin, M., and Bradley, J. (2012). Virtual Zooarchaeology of the Arctic Project. <>.Google Scholar
  71. McClellan, G. (1872). The Golden State A History of the Region West of the Rocky Mountains: Embracing California, Oregon, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Idaho, Washington Territory, British Columbia, and Alaska, William Flint, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  72. McCullough, D. (1969). The Tule Elk: Its History, Behavior, and Ecology, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  73. McGowan, G., and Prangnell, J. (2006). The significance of Vivianite in archaeological settings. Geoarchaeology 21: 93–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McLaughlin, D. J. (2003). California Missions Resource Center, Pentacle Press, Scholar
  75. Meyer, C. (2003). Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda:Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 79: 401–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nagaoka, L. (2005). Differential recovery of Pacific Island fish remains. Journal of Archaeological Science 32: 941–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nichols, F. H., Cloern, J. E., Luoma, S. N., and Peterson, D. H. (1986). Modification of an estuary. Science 231: 567–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ogden, A. (1941). The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784–1848, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  79. Olsen, S. J. (1960). Post-Cranial Skeletal Characters of Bison and Bos, Peabody Museum, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  80. Olsen, S. J. (1964). Mammal Remains from Archaeological Sites, Peabody Museum, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  81. Osborn, W. B. (1877). Narrative of a visit of six weeks to San Francisco in 1844. Manuscript, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  82. Page, L. M., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L. T., Gilbert, C. R., Lea, R. N., Mandrak, N. E., Mayden, R. L., and Nelson, J. S. (2013). Common and Scientific Names of Fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico, 7th ed, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar
  83. Pastron, A. G. (1987). The Archaeology of 100 First Plaza San Francisco, California, Final Report. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  84. Pastron, A. G., and Beevers, L. D. (2003). On the Edge of gold Mountain: The Archaeology of the Wing Lee Laundry Site: The Rich Sorro Commons Project On-Site Archaeological Monitoring and Data Recovery Program, City and County of San Francisco, California. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  85. Pastron, A. G., and Bruner, K. (2012). City College of San Francisco Chinatown/North Beach Campus San Francisco, California: Archaeological Monitoring Report. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  86. Pastron, A. G., and Bruner, K. (2014). Final Archaeological Resources Report for the 717 Battery Street Project, City and County of San Francisco, California. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  87. Pastron, A. G., and Hattori, E. M. (1990). The Hoff Store Site and Gold Rush Merchandise from San Francisco, California, Society for Historical Archaeology, Germantown.Google Scholar
  88. Pastron, A. G., and Robichaud, R. K. (2007). Strawberries as Large as Small Pears: Archaeological Investigations of a Victorian-Era Overseas Chinese Farm in San Francisco: Final Archaeological Resources Report for the Valencia Gardens HOPE VI Project Vol. I and II. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  89. Phelps, W. D. (1983). Alta California 1840–1842: The Journal and Observations of William Dave Phelps Master of the Ship “Alert”, Briton Cooper Busch, Glendale.Google Scholar
  90. Postel, M. (1988). A lost resource shellfish in San Francisco Bay. California History 67: 26–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Praetzellis, M., and Praetzellis, A. (eds.) (2009). South of Market: Historical Archaeology of 3 San Francisco Neighborhoods: The San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge West Approach Project, Vol. 1. Anthropological Studies Center, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA.Google Scholar
  92. Quitmyer, I. R. (2004). What kind of data are in the back dirt? an experiment on the influence of screen size on optimal data recovery. Archaeofauna 13: 109–129.Google Scholar
  93. Rehder, H. A. (1995). Familiar Seashells of North America, Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  94. Rehder, H. A. (1996). National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Seashells, Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Richards, R. (2009). Mud Blood and Gold: San Francisco in 1849, Heritage House, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  96. Rouse, J. E. (1978). The Criollo: Spanish Cattle in the Americas, University of Oklahoma Press, Oklahoma City.Google Scholar
  97. Schaffer, B. (1992). Quarter-inch screening: understanding biases in recovery of vertebrate faunal remains. American Antiquity 57: 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schmid, E. (1972). Atlas of Animal Bones for Prehistorians, Archaeologists, and Quaternary Geologists, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  99. Schumann, W. (1993). Handbook of Rocks, Minerals and Gem Stones, Harper Collins, New York.Google Scholar
  100. Scofield, W. L. (1954). California Fishing Ports, California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  101. Self, W., and Miller, G. R. (eds.) (1996). After the Gold Rush: Historic Archaeology of the Costco Warehouse Site CA-SFR-125H, San Francisco, California. Available from the Northwest Information Center, contact Scholar
  102. Silver, A. (1970). The ageing of domestic animals. In Brothwell, D., and Higgs, E. (eds.), Science in Archaeology: A Survey of Progress and Research, Praeger, New York, pp. 283–303.Google Scholar
  103. Skinner, J. E. (1962). An Historical Review of the Fish and Wildlife Resources of the San Francisco Bay Area, Resources Agency of California, Department of Fish and Game, Water Projects Branch, Sacramento.Google Scholar
  104. Small, A. (1974). The Birds of California, Winchester Press, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Smith, M. H. (1981). An Interpretive Study of the Collection Recovered from the Storeship Niantic. Unpublished report prepared for the National Trust for Historic Preservation and the National Maritime Museum, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  106. Smith, R. I., Carlton, J. T., and Light, S. F. (1975). Light’s Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast, 3rd ed, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  107. Soulé, F., Gihon, J. H., and Nisbit, J. (1854). The Annals of San Francisco, Appleton, New York.Google Scholar
  108. St. Clair, M., and Dobkin, M. (2005). Report on Technical and Interpretive Studies for Historical Archaeology: Central Freeway Replacement Project. Final Report, URS Corporation, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  109. Stahl, P. W. (1996). The recovery and interpretation of microvertebrate bone assemblages from archaeological contexts. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 3: 31–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stine, S. W. (1980). Hunting and the Faunal Landscape: Subsistence and Commercial Venery in Early California. Master’s thesis, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  111. Storey, A., Ramirez, J. M., Quiroz, D., Burley, D., Addison, D., Walter, R., Anderson, A., Hunt, T., Athens, S., Huynen, L., and Matisoo-Smith, E. (2007). Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 10335–10339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Strona, G., Nappo, D., Boccacci, F., Fattorini, S., and San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. (2014). A fast and unbiased procedure to randomize ecological binary matrices with fixed row and column totals. Nature Communications 5(4414): 1–7.Google Scholar
  113. Turgeon, D., Coan, E., Emerson, W., Lyons, W., Pratt, W., Roper, C., Scheltema, A., Thompson, F., and Williams, J. (1988). Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar
  114. Turtle Taxonomy Working Group, van Dijk, P. P., Iverson, J. B., Rhodin, A. G. J., Shaffer, H. B., and Bour, R. (2014). Turtles of the world, 7th ed: annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution with maps, and conservation status. In Rhodin, A. G. J., Pritchard, P. C. H., van Dijk, P. P., Saumure, R. A., Buhlmann, K. A., Iverson, J. B., and Mittermeier, R. A. (eds.), Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs 5(7): 000.329–479, doi: 10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014.
  115. Udvardy, M., Wilson, A., and Hogan, L. (2011). National Audubon Society Field Guide to Birds: Western Region, Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Van Houtan, K. S., Kittinger, J. N., Lawrence, A. L., Yoshinaga, C., Born, V. R., and Fox, A. (2012). Hawksbill Sea Turtles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 11(1): 117–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. US Fish and Wildlife Service (1987). Birds of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuges. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online, Jamestown, ND. <>.
  118. Wolf, E. (1959). Sons of the Shaking Earth, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  119. Wolverton, S. (2002). NISP:MNE and % whole in analysis of prehistoric carcass exploitation. North American Archaeologist 23(2): 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wolverton, S., Nagaoka, L., Densmore, J., and Fullerton, B. (2008). White-tailed deer harvest pressure and within-bone nutrient exploitation during the mid-to late Holocene in southeast Texas. Before Farming 2(3): 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wyneken, J. (2001). The Anatomy of Sea Turtles, US Department of Commerce, Miami.Google Scholar
  122. Zeder, M. A., and Lapham, H. A. (2010). Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify postcranial bones in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 2887–2905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zeder, M. A., and Pilaar, S. E. (2010). Assessing the reliability of criteria used to identify mandibles and mandibular teeth in sheep, Ovis, and goats, Capra. Journal of Archaeological Science 37: 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cyler Conrad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kenneth W. Gobalet
    • 2
  • Kale Bruner
    • 3
  • Allen G. Pastron
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biology, EmeritusCalifornia State UniversityBakersfieldUSA
  3. 3.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  4. 4.Archeo-Tec, Inc.OaklandUSA

Personalised recommendations