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To Click, or Not to Click? Perfectionism and the Association of Gender and Competitiveness on Game-Point Monitoring


New game technologies seem to permeate every area of daily life. Therefore, it is not surprising that, in addition to the incorporation of entertaining gaming features into otherwise dull or tedious activities, the positive influence of user experience and user engagement has also been on the rise in recent years. It is all part of gamification. Individual differences in response to gamification deserve attention. Specifically, the objective of this experimental study was to investigate how perfectionism and gender affect behavior under two conditions—free play and competition—during a logic video game played by 155 gifted high school students. Game points monitoring frequency (GPMF) and game completion time (GCT) were measured. Functional perfectionists showed significantly higher GPMF than dysfunctional perfectionists. Furthermore, the competitive condition increased GPMF significantly more in functional perfectionists (compared to dysfunctional perfectionists) and girls tended to show higher GCT across the conditions. The results indicate that, in a competitive environment, the effectiveness of employing points for feedback is influenced by both a perfectionistic personality style and gender. Our study supports the notion that gamification elements can affect individuals differently, supporting the motivation of some students, yet being ignored by others.

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The R code used for analyses that support the findings of this study is openly available in figshare at


  1. The data and the R code used for the analyses that support the findings of this study are openly available online (see Supplemental Material).

  2. Initially, the sample comprised of 155 sixth-grade students. However, the data for the Triton video game (the main method described below) from one of the schools (n = 22, 14%) were discarded due to technical difficulties (i.e., problems with the internet connection).

  3. In items 9, 13, and 32, only the word “school” instead of “work/school” was retained (the wording of all the items can be found in Frost et al., 1990). In seven other items, one word was replaced with its more common Czech synonym to increase readability with minimal changes to the items’ meaning.


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This study is part of the project “MUNI/A/1548/2021”, and it received support from the Grant Projects of Specific Research Program at the Masaryk University Faculty of Social Studies.

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Correspondence to Michal Jabůrek.

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Portešová, Š., Jabůrek, M., Rečka, K. et al. To Click, or Not to Click? Perfectionism and the Association of Gender and Competitiveness on Game-Point Monitoring. Tech Know Learn 28, 1841–1870 (2023).

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