Skip to main content

How Does Digital Competence Training Affect Teachers' Professional Development and Activities?

Abstract

For the purposes of this study, teachers received collaborative and applied digital competence training in creating interactive e-books. After the training, the changes in these teachers’ perceptions of digital competencies and how teachers plan to use their experiences while performing their profession were examined. Case studies provided data for the methodological approach. Data collection tools employed included surveys, diaries, and focus group interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed through the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test. Qualitative data were analyzed based on the deductive analysis method. The study found that the training on digital competence enhanced the knowledge and skills of the teachers, particularly in the areas of improving professional engagement, using digital resources, organizing teaching activities, improving assessments, and empowering learners. The study found that thanks to the training and practices introduced, teachers from various fields were able to advance organizational communications and cooperation using digital technologies. In addition to that, they developed a variety of digital content formats compatible with existing student requirements as well as curriculum objectives. In their professional endeavors, the teachers planned to implement the insights they gained in offering assessment-evaluation, providing feedback to students, organizing learning-teaching activities, and actively engaging learners via digital technologies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig.1
Fig. 2

Code Availability

The data was analyzed with MAXQDA2018. Codes can be presented and shared on demand.

Data Availability

Data can be presented and shared on demand.

References

  1. Agyei, D. D., & Voogt, J. M. (2016). Pre-service mathematics teachers’ learning and teaching of activity-based lessons supported with spreadsheets. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 25(1), 39–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Benali, M., Kaddouri, M., & Azzimani, T. (2018). Digital competence of Moroccan teachers of english. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 14(2), 99–120.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Brantley-Dias, L., & Ertmer, P. A. (2013). Goldilocks and TPACK. Is the construct ‘just right? Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 46(2), 103–128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Brun, M., & Hinostroza, J. E. (2014). Learning to become a teacher in the 21st century: ICT integration in initial teacher education in Chile. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(3), 222–238.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Cabero-Almenara, J., Romero-Tena, R., & Palacios-Rodríguez, A. (2020). Evaluation of teacher digital competence frameworks through expert judgement: the use of the expert competence coefficient. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research (NAER Journal), 9(2), 275–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Caena, F., & Redecker, C. (2019). Aligning teacher competence frameworks to 21st century challenges: The case for the European digital competence framework for educators (DigcompEdu). European Journal of Education, 54(3), 356–369. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejed.12345.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Casillas Martín, S., Cabezas González, M., & García Peñalvo, F. J. (2020). Digital competence of early childhood education teachers: attitude, knowledge and use of ICT. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(2), 210–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2019.1681393.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Instutito Nacional de Technolagias Educativas y de Formacion del Profesorado (INTEF) (2017). Common digital competence framework for teachers – September 2017.

  9. Dinçer, S. (2018). Are preservice teachers really literate enough to integrate technology in their classroom practice? Determining the technology literacy level of preservice teachers. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2699–2718. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9737-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ellis, N. J., Alonzo, D., & Nguyen, H. T. M. (2020). Elements of a quality pre-service teacher mentor: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 92, 103072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2020.103072.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2013). Removing obstacles to the pedagogical changes required by Jonassen’s vision of authentic technology-enabled learning. Computers and Education, 64, 175–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.008.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Falloon, G. (2020). From digital literacy to digital competence: The teacher digital competency (TDC) framework. Educational Technology Research and Development. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-020-09767-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Fernández-Batanero, J. M., Montenegro-Rueda, M., Fernández-Cerero, J., & García-Martínez, I. (2020). Digital competences for teacher professional development. Systematic Review, European Journal of Teacher Education,. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2020.1827389.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. New York: SAGE Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Garcia-Martin, J., & Garcia-Sanchez, J. N. (2017). Pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the competence dimensions of digital literacy and of psychological and educational measures. Computers and Education, 107, 54–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2016.12.010.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Gibbs, A. (2012). Focus groups and group interviews. In J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe, & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), Research methods and methodologies in education (pp. 186–192). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Gisbert Cervera, M., & Lázaro Cantabrana, J. L. (2015). Professional development in teacher digital competence and improving school quality from the teachers’ perspective: A case study. New Approaches In Educational Research, 4(2), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.7821/naer.2015.7.123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Gudmundsdottir, G. B., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2018). Newly qualified teachers’ professional digital competence: Implications for teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 214–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2017.1416085.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gudmundsdottir, G. B., Loftagarden, M., & Ottestad, G. (2014). Newly qualified teachers: Professional digital competence and experiences with ICT in teacher education. Oslo: The Norwegian Centre for ICT. (in Education).

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hatlevik, O. E. (2017). Examining the relationship between teachers’ self-efficacy, their digital competence, strategies to evaluate ınformation, and use of ICT at school. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(5), 555–567. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2016.1172501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hepp, P., Prats, M. A., & Holgado, J. (2015). Teacher training: Technology helping to develop an innovative and reflective professional profile. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 12(2), 30–43. https://doi.org/10.7238/rusc.v12i2.2458.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hinojo-Lucena, F. J., Aznar-Díaz, I., Cáceres-Reche, M. P., Trujillo-Torres, J. M., & Romero- Rodríguez, J. M. (2019). Factors influencing the development of digital competence in teachers: Analysis of the teaching staff of permanent education centres. IEEE Access, 7, 178744–178752. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2957438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Howard, S. K., Tondeur, J., Ma, J., & Yang, J. (2019). Seeing the wood for the trees: Insights into the complexity of developing pre-service teachers’ digital competencies for future teaching. In Y. W. Chew, K. M. Chan, & A. Alphonso (Eds.), ASCILITE 2019: 36th International Conference on Innovation, Practice and Research in the Use of Educational Technologies in Tertiary Education (pp. 441–446). ASCILITE.

  24. Hsu, Y. Y., & Lin, C. H. (2020). Evaluating the effectiveness of a preservice teacher technology training module incorporating SQD strategies. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(1), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-020-00205-2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Instefjord, E. J., & Munthe, E. (2016). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology: An analysis of the emphasis on digital competence in teacher education curricula. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 77–93. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2015.1100602.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Instefjord, E., & Munthe, E. (2017). Educating digitally competent teachers: A study of integration of professional digital competence in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 67, 37–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.05.016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Johannesen, M., Øgrim, L., & Giæver, T. H. (2014). Notion in motion: Teachers’ digital competence. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 9(04), 300–312.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Kabakci Yurdakul, I., & Çoklar, A. N. (2014). Modeling preservice teachers’ TPACK competencies based on ICT usage. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30(4), 363–376. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12049.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kelentrić, M., Helland, K. & Arstorp, A. (2017). Professional digital competence framework for teachers. The Norwegian Centre for ICT in Education. 1–74. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/%C4%B0lknur/Downloads/pfdk_framework.pdf

  30. Kelentrić, M., Helland, K., & Arstorp, A. T. (2018). Professional digital competence framework for teachers. (Report No. ISBN 978–82–93378–51–8). The Norwegian Centre for ICT in Education.

  31. Kihoza, P. D., Zlotnikova, I., Bada, J. K., & Kalegele, K. (2016). An assessment of teachers’ abilities to support blended learning implementation in Tanzanian secondary schools. Contemporary Educational Technology, 7(1), 60–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kim, C., Kim, M. K., Lee, C., Spector, J. M., & DeMeester, K. (2013). Teacher beliefs and technology integration. Teaching and Teacher Education, 29, 76–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.08.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Kopcha, T. J. (2012). Teachers’ perceptions of the barriers to technology integration and practices with technology under situated professional development. Computers and Education, 59(4), 1109–1121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.05.014.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Krumsvik, R. J. (2011). Digital competence in the Norwegian teacher education and schools. Högre utbildning, 1(1), 39–51.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Krumsvik, R. J. (2014). Teacher educators’ digital competence. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 58(3), 269–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2012.726273.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Krumsvik, R. J., Jones, L. Ø., Øfstegaard, M., & Eikeland, O. J. (2016). Upper secondary school teachers’ digital competence: Analysed by demographic, personal and professional characteristics. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 11(3), 143–164. https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.1891-943x-2016-03-02.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Lázaro-Cantabrana, J., Usart-Rodríguez, M., & Gisbert-Cervera, M. (2019). Assessing teacher digital competence: The construction of an instrument for measuring the knowledge of pre-service teachers. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research (NAER Journal), 8(1), 73–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lee, Y., & Lee, J. (2014). Enhancing pre-service teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs for technology integration through lesson planning practice. Computers and Education, 73, 121–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Lindberg, O., Olofsson, A., & Fransson, G. (2017). Same but different? An examination of Swedish upper secondary school teachers’ and students’ views and use of ICT in education. The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, 34(2), 122–132. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJILT-09-2016-0043.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Liu, S. H., Tsai, H. C., & Huang, Y. T. (2015). Collaborative professional development of mentor teachers and pre-service teachers in relation to technology integration. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 161–172.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Maderick, J. A., Zhang, S., Hartley, K., & Marchand, G. (2016). Preservice teachers and self-assessing digital competence. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 54(3), 326–351. https://doi.org/10.1177/0735633115620432.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. McGarr, O. & McDonagh, A. (2019) Digital Competence in Teacher Education, Output 1 of the Erasmus+ funded Developing Student Teachers’ Digital Competence (DICTE) project. https://dicte.oslomet.no/

  43. McHugh, M. L. (2012). Interrater reliability: The kappa statistic. Biochemia medica, 22(3), 276–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Miguel-Revilla, D., Martínez-Ferreira, J. M., & Sánchez-Agustí, M. (2020). Assessing the digital competence of educators in social studies: An analysis in initial teacher training using the TPACK-21 model. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 36(2), 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college record, 108(6), 1017–1054.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Moltudal, S., Krumsvik, R., Jones, L., Eikeland, O. J., & Johnson, B. (2019). The relationship between teachers’ perceived classroom management abilities and their professional digital competence. Designs for Learning, 11(1), 80–98. https://doi.org/10.16993/dfl.128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Napal-Fraile, M., Peñalva-Vélez, A., & Mendióroz-Lacambra, A. (2018). Development of digital competence in secondary education teachers’ training. Education Sciences, 8(3), 104–104. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci8030104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Ottestad, G., Kelentrić, M., & Guðmundsdóttir, G. B. (2014). Professional digital competence in teacher education. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 9(04), 243–249.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Palacios Hidalgo, F. J., Gómez Parra, M., & Huertas Abril, C. A. (2020). Digital and media competences: Key competences for EFL Teachers. Teaching English with Technology, 20(1), 43–59.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Petko, D. (2012). Teachers’ pedagogical beliefs and their use of digital media in classrooms: Sharpening the focus of the ‘will, skill, tool’ model and integrating teachers’ constructivist orientations. Computers and Education, 58(4), 1351–1359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.013.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Pettersson, F. (2018). On the issues of digital competence in educational contexts–a review of literature. Education and Information Technologies, 23(3), 1005–1021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9649-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Ranieri, M., & Bruni, I. (2018). Promoting digital and media competences of pre- and in-service teachers. Research findings of a project from six European Countries. JE-LKS. Journal of E-Learning and Knowledge Society, 14, 111–125.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Redecker, C. (2017). European framework for the digital competence of educators: DigCompEdu, JRC Working Papers JRC107466, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).

  54. Reisoğlu, İ, & Çebi, A. (2020). How can the digital competences of pre-service teachers be developed? Examining a case study through the lens of DigComp and DigCompEdu. Computers and Education. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103940.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Røkenes, F. M., & Krumsvik, R. J. (2014). Development of student teachers’ digital competence in teacher education: A literature review. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 9(04), 250–280.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Romero-García, C., Buzón-García, O., & de Paz-Lugo, P. (2020). Improving future teachers’ digital competence using active methodologies. Sustainability, 12(18), 7798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Samad, R. S. A., Wahab, H. A., Othman, A. J., & Ali, S. K. S. (2016). Teachers’ skill and information and communication technology integration in teaching and learning process. Advanced Science Letters, 22(8), 2066–2069.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Seufert, S., Guggemos, J., & Tarantini, E. (2018). Online professional learning communities for developing teachers' digital competences. 15th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA 2018), Budapest, Hungary. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED600631.pdf.

  59. Silva, J. S., Usart, M. U., Lázaro-Cantabrana, J. L. L. C., Silva, J., Usart, M., & Lázaro-Cantabrana, J. L. (2019). Teacher’s digital competence among final year Pedagogy students in Chile and Uruguay. Comunicar. Media Education Research Journal, 27(2), 31–40. https://doi.org/10.3916/C61-2019-03.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Smarkola, C. (2008). Efficacy of a planned model: Belief that contribute to computer usage intentions of student teachers. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(3), 1196–1215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2007.04.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Starkey, L. (2019). A review of research exploring teacher preparation for the digital age. Cambridge Journal of Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305764X.2019.1625867.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Thomas, D. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation., 27(2), 237–246. https://doi.org/10.1177/1098214005283748.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Sang, G., Voogt, J., Fisser, P., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. (2012). Preparing pre-service teachers to integrate technology in education: A synthesis of qualitative evidence. Computers and Education, 59, 134–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Siddiq, F., & Scherer, R. (2016). Time for a new approach to prepare future teachers for educational technology use: Its meaning and measurement. Computers and Education, 94, 134–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.11.009.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Tondeur, J., Pareja Roblin, N., van Braak, J., Voogt, J., & Prestridge, S. (2017a). Preparing beginning teachers for technology integration in education: Ready for take-off? Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 26(2), 157–177. https://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2016.1193556.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Tondeur, J., Aesaert, K., Pynoo, B., van Braak, J., Fraeyman, N., & Erstad, O. (2017b). Developing a validated instrument to measure preservice teachers’ ICT competencies: Meeting the demands of the 21st century. British Journal of Educational Technology, 48(2), 462–472. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.1238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Tondeur, J., Aesaert, K., Prestridge, S., & Consuegra, E. (2018). A multilevel analysis of what matters in the training of pre-service teacher’s ICT competencies. Computers and Education, 122, 32–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.002.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Tusiime, W., Johannesen, M., & Gudmundsdottir, G. (2019). Developing teachers’ digital competence: Approaches for art and design teacher educators in Uganda. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 15(1), 133–149.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Uerz, D., Volman, M., & Kral, M. (2018). Teacher educators’competences in fostering student teachers’proficiency in teaching and learning with technology: An overview of relevant research literature. Teaching and Teacher Education, 70, 12–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2017.11.00.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Wasson, B., & Hansen, C. (2014). Making use of ICT: Glimpses from Norwegian teacher practices. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 1, 44–65.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research. London: Sage Publication.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research design and methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Yurdakul, I. K., Odabasi, H. F., Kilicer, K., Coklar, A. N., Birinci, G., & Kurt, A. A. (2012). The development, validity and reliability of TPACK-deep: A technological pedagogical content knowledge scale. Computers and Education, 58(3), 964–977. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey 4005-Innovative Applications in Science and Society under Grant number 118B172 “Teachers Create Interactive E-Books” project.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to İlknur Reisoğlu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

There is no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Reisoğlu, İ. How Does Digital Competence Training Affect Teachers' Professional Development and Activities?. Tech Know Learn (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10758-021-09501-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Digital competence training
  • Teacher
  • Professional development
  • Digital competence
  • DigCompEdu