Technology, Knowledge and Learning

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 353–368 | Cite as

Bringing Abstract Academic Integrity and Ethical Concepts into Real-Life Situations

  • Theresa KwongEmail author
  • Eva Wong
  • Kevin Yue
Original research


This paper reports the learning analytics on the initial stages of a large-scale, government-funded project which inducts university students in Hong Kong into consideration of academic integrity and ethics through mobile Augmented Reality (AR) learning trails—Trails of Integrity and Ethics (TIEs)—accessed on smart devices. The trails immerse students in collaborative problem solving tasks centred on ethical dilemmas, addressed in real, actual locations where such dilemmas might arise, with contextually appropriate digital advice and information available on hand. Students play out the consequences of their decisions which help reinforce the links between the theoretical concept of academic integrity and ethics and the practical application in everyday contexts. To evaluate the effectiveness of the TIEs, triangulation of different sets of data is adopted and these datasets include user experience surveys, qualitative feedback, clickstream data, and text mining of pre-/post-trail discussion. Thousands of students’ responses and related data gathered are analysed to ascertain the effectiveness of these mobile learning trails in enhancing students’ awareness of AIE issues. The positive learning outcome of the TIEs suggests that this approach can be adopted and applied to a wider scope of the academic curriculum and co-curriculum.


Academic integrity Augmented reality Ethics Learning analytics Learning trail Mobile learning 



The authors would like to thank the University Grants Committee of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Hong Kong Baptist University for funding this project. We would also like to express our gratitude and appreciation to our project collaborators in the three partner institutions, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Education University of Hong Kong, and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. A special vote of thanks should be registered for Ms Grace Ng, Dr. Isaac Chan, Miss Erica Zhong and Mr Rex Chiu of the Centre for Holistic Teaching and Learning at HKBU for their support in this project and in the preparation of this manuscript.


  1. Chan, J., Chiu, R., Ng, G., & Kwong, T. (2015). How clickstream tracking helps design mobile learning content. International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 2(7), 95–104.Google Scholar
  2. Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agre, G., & Angelova, G. (2015). Gamification in education: A systematic mapping study. Educational Technology & Society, 18(3), 75–88.Google Scholar
  3. Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., de-Marcos, L., Fernández-Sanz, L., Pagés, C., & Martínez-Herráiz, J. J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers & Education, 63, 380–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18, 7–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gibson, D., & Ifenthaler, D. (2016). Preparing the next generation of education researchers for big data in higher education. In B. K. Daniel (Ed.), Big data and learning analytics in higher education (pp. 29–42). Cham: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  6. Gibson, D., & Webb, M. E. (2015). Data science in educational assessment. Education and Information Technologies, 20(4), 697–713. doi: 10.1007/s10639-015-9411-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Cummins, M., Estrada, V., Freeman, A., & Hall, C. (2016). NMC horizon report: 2016 higher (Education ed.). Austin: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
  8. Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., Estrada, V., & Freeman, A. (2015). The NMC horizon report: 2015 (Museum ed.). Austin: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
  9. Johnson, L., Adams Becker, S., & Freeman, A. (2013). The NMC horizon report: 2013 (Museum ed.). Austin: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
  10. Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2011). The 2011 horizon report. Austin: The New Media Consortium.Google Scholar
  11. Jones, D. L. (2011). Academic dishonesty: Are more students cheating? Business Communication Quarterly, 74(2), 141–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuhlmann, T. (2009, July 14). Build branched e-learning scenarios in three simple steps. Retrieved from
  13. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee, K. (2012). Augmented reality in education and training. TechTrends, 56(2), 14–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li, P., Kong, S.C., Guo, C., Wong, E., Chan, J. (2015). Enhancing academic integrity online via blended learning and discussion analytics. Proceedings of the eLearning Forum Asia 2015, Singapore.Google Scholar
  16. Manly, T. S., Leonard, L. N., & Riemenschneider, C. K. (2015). Academic integrity in the information age: Virtues of respect and responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(3), 579–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Papamitsiou, Z., & Economides, A. (2014). Learning analytics and educational data mining in practice: A systematic literature review of empirical evidence. Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 49–64.Google Scholar
  18. Pence, H. E. (2010). Smartphones, smart objects, and augmented reality. The Reference Librarian, 52(1–2), 136–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Simola, S. (2017). Managing for academic integrity in higher education: Insights from behavioral ethics. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 3(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wu, H. K., Lee, S. W. Y., Chang, H. Y., & Liang, J. C. (2013). Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education. Computers & Education, 62, 41–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yuan, M. L., Ong, S. K., & Nee, A. Y. C. (2008). Augmented reality for assembly guidance using a virtual interactive tool. International Journal of Production Research, 46(7), 1745–1767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Holistic Teaching and LearningHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong
  2. 2.School of Chinese MedicineHong Kong Baptist UniversityKowloon TongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations