Apoptosis is an important cell death mechanism for the resolution of inflammation. Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis rates were reported to be slightly different in men and women and to be modulated by female sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether different nanoparticles (NPs) will alter the neutrophil and eosinophil apoptotic rates differently in men and women. Using the antiapoptotic cytokine granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the proapoptotic plant lectin Viscum album agglutinin-I (VAA-I) as controls, we found that these factors respectively delay and induce apoptosis in both neutrophils and eosinophils with apoptotic rates remarkably similar in both sexes. The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 0 (G0) and G3 slightly, but not significantly, accelerate neutrophil apoptosis regardless of sex. Zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), cerium dioxide (CeO2), and palladium (Pd) but not platinum (Pt) NPs were found to significantly delay neutrophil apoptosis. When results were compared between men and women, only ZnO and Pd NPs were found to significantly delay neutrophil apoptosis in men while ZnO, TiO2, CeO2, and Pt NPs inhibit apoptosis in women neutrophils. In eosinophils, G3, but not G0 NPs, significantly accelerate apoptosis in women. ZnO, Pt, and Pd NPs significantly delay eosinophil apoptosis but only in women. Unlike neutrophils, TiO2 and CeO2 NPs did not significantly delay eosinophil apoptosis. We propose that future studies aiming at determining potential effect NPs on cellular biological processes should incorporate a sex-based analysis based on the differences reported here studying the impact of NPs on human granulocyte apoptosis.
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The study was supported by grants (2017–0044) from the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST).
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Vanharen, M., Durocher, I., Saafane, A. et al. Evaluating the Apoptotic Cell Death Modulatory Activity of Nanoparticles in Men and Women Neutrophils and Eosinophils. Inflammation 45, 387–398 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-021-01553-5