Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber contribute a significant proportion of daily energy requirement. Furthermore, these compounds are modulators of macrophage function and potential targets for the development of new drugs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of three types of SCFAs (sodium acetate (NaAc), sodium propionate (NaP), and sodium butyrate (NaB)) on the production of NO and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, and IL-10)) and to observe the effect of NaAc on inhibiting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results show that three types of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) reduced the production of proinflammatory factors, including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO, and inhibited the vitality of iNOS. Meanwhile, SCFAs enhanced the production of antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10 in lower concentrations (1–1,200 μmol/L). Like NaB, NaAC inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation. These results may hold promise on the role that SCFAs have on the prevention and treatment of various inflammatory conditions.
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This research was supported by the National Sciences and Technology subject for Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars (2008-199), the Key Project of Science and Technology for Universities in Hebei Province (ZD2010234), and the Key Basic Applied Research Program of Hebei Province (11966411D). The authors thank Mingshen Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, and Xu Cao for excellent technical assistance.
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Liu, T., Li, J., Liu, Y. et al. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Production of Nitric Oxide and Proinflammatory Cytokines Through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells. Inflammation 35, 1676–1684 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-012-9484-z
- proinflammatory factors
- inducible nitric synthase
- NF-κB p65