NANOMET-type soft magnetic alloys of Fe82Si4B10P3Cu1 and Fe78Si8B10P3Cu1 were studied. Nanocrystalline alloys were prepared by annealing the amorphous precursors at a temperature of 420 °C for 20 and 60 min in vacuum and in Ar atmosphere. The effect of the annealing atmosphere and time of annealing on the alloy structural and magnetic properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetic measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD unveiled partial crystallization of the Fe82Si4B10P3Cu1 alloy and confirmed amorphous structure of the Fe78Si8B10P3Cu1 alloy. The technique also indicated larger grain size after annealing in vacuum as compared to that in argon. MS disclosed the effect of the silicon content on the annealed alloys microstructure, namely the lower relative volumetric fraction of the A8 crystalline phase component for the alloy with 8 at. % Si as compared to the alloy with 4 at. % Si. Variations of the parameters reflecting the magnetic microstructure were also observed and are discussed with relation to different annealing times and atmospheres. Magnetic measurements showed better soft magnetic properties for sample with 8 at. % Si whose coercivity was lower as well as the determined magnetization work. They also indicated lower coercivity for argon annealed samples and showed that longer annealing times are reflected in the increased resultant coercivity. For both studied compositions, the AFM measurements inspecting the morphology of the sample surfaces manifested the presence of lower protrusions on the surfaces of the vacuum annealed samples as compared to the argon annealed ones, where also larger agglomerates were disclosed.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
Availability of data and materials
Lashgari, H.R., Chu, D., Xie, S., Sun, H., Ferry, M., Li, S.: Composition dependence of the microstructure and soft magnetic properties of Fe-based amorphous / nanocrystalline alloys : A review study. J. Non. Cryst. Solids. 391, 61–82 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2014.03.010
McHenry, M.E., Johnson, F., Okumura, H., Ohkubo, T., Ramanan, V.R.V., Laughlin, D.E.: The kinetics of nanocrystallization and microstructural observations in FINEMET, NANOPERM and HITPERM nanocomposite magnetic materials. Scr. Mater. 48, 881–887 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6462(02)00597-3
Nishiyama, N., Tanimoto, K., Makino, A.: Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy “ NANOMET ® ” cores Outstanding efficiency in energy conversion for electric motors constructed by nanocrystalline soft magnetic. AIP Adv. 055925, (2016). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4944341
Makino, A., Men, H., Kubota, T., Yubuta, K., Inoue, A.: FeSiBPCu nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys with high B s of 1.9 Tesla produced by crystallizing hetero-amorphous phase. Mater. Trans. 50, 204–209 (2009). https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.MER2008306
Makino, A.: Nanocrystalline soft magnetic Fe-Si-B-P-Cu alloys with high B of 1.8–1.9T contributable to energy saving. IEEE Trans. Magn. 48, 1331–1335 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2011.2175210
Meng, Y., Pang, S., Chang, C., Wang, G.: Magnetic softening of the Fe83 Si3B11P2Cu1 amorphous / nanocrystalline alloys with large-size pre-existing a -Fe grains by high heating-rate annealing. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 20, 161–168 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2022.07.051
Parsons, R., Garitaonandia, J.S., Yanai, T., Onodera, K., Kishimoto, H., Kato, A.: Effect of Si on the field-induced anisotropy in Fe-rich nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3156–3162 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.11.330
Butvinová, B., Vlasák, G., Butvin, P., Ileková, E.: Magnetic properties and dilatation of FeNbCuBSi alloys. Acta Phys. Slovaca. 51, 1–7 (2001)
Butvinová, B., Butvin, P., Maťko, I., Janičkovič, D., Kuzminski, M.: Accents in modern high saturation nanocrystalline Fe-Rich alloys. ACTA Phys. Pol. A. 131, 711–713 (2017). https://doi.org/10.12693/APhysPolA.131.711
Butvinová, B., Butvin, P., Maťko, I., Kadlečíková, M., Kuzminski, M., Švec, P., Jr.: Surface mediated impact of thermal treatment ambience on magnetic properties of Fe–Nb–Cu–B–Si nanocrystalline ribbons. Appl. Surf. Sci. 301, 119–125 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.01.199
Žák, T., Jirásková, J.: CONFIT: Mossbauer spectra fitting program. Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 710–714 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.2285
Cao, C.C., Wang, Y.G., Zhu, L., Meng, Y., Zhai, X.B., Dai, Y.D., Chen, J.K., Pan, F.M.: Local structure, nucleation sites and crystallization behavior and their effects on magnetic properties of Fe81SixB10P8−xCu1 (x = 0~8). Sci. Rep. 1–11 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-19665-8
Stearns, M.B.: Internal magnetic fields, isomer shifts, and relative abundances of the various Fe sites in FeSi alloys. Phys. Rev. 129, (1963)
Butvin, P., Sitek, J., Butvinová, B., Ileková, E.: Unusual magnetic anisotropy of Si-poor FeNbCuBSi. J. Phys. IV Fr. 8, 123–126 (1998)
Butvinová, B., Butvin, P., Brzózka, K., Kuzminski, M., Maťko, I., Švec, P., Sr., Chromčíková, M.: Effects of surface crystallization and oxidation in nanocrystalline FeNbCuSiB(P) ribbons. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 424, 233–237 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.10.068
Zhang, B., Yang, F., He, A., Xiao, H., Dong, Y., Li, J., Han, Y.: Rapid annealing optimizing magnetic softness and thermal stability of Mn-substituted Fe-based nanocrystalline alloys. Metals (Basel). 11, (2021). https://doi.org/10.3390/met11010020
Životský, O., Postava, K., Kraus, L., Jirásková, Y., Juraszek, J., Teillet, J., Barčová, K., Švec, P., Janičkovič, D., Pištora, J.: Surface and bulk magnetic properties of as-quenched FeNbB ribbons. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 320, 1535–1540 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2008.01.003
Butvinová, B., Butvin, P., Schäfer, R.: Influence of heterogeneity on magnetic response of nanocrystalline ribbons. Sensors Actuators A. 106, 52–55 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-4247(03)00132-8
Makino, A., Men, H., Kubota, T., Yubuta, K., Inoue, A.: New excellent soft magnetic FeSiBPCu nanocrystallized alloys with high Bs of 1.9 T from nanohetero-amorphous phase. IEEE Trans. Magn. 45, 4302–4305 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1109/TMAG.2009.20238623
Byrne, C.J., Theisen, E.A., Reed, B.L., Steen, P.H.: Capillary puddle vibrations linked to casting-defect formation in Planar-Flow melt spinning. Metal. Mater. Trans. B. 37, 445–456 (2006)
Sitek, J., Sedlačková, K., Butvinová, B., Dekan, J., Pavúk, M.: Structural and Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline FeSiBPCu Alloy. AIP Conf. Proceedings, Appl. Phys. Condens. Matter APCOM 2022, Štrbské Pleso, Slovak Republic, in press
This work was partially supported by grants of the Slovak Research and Development Agency No. APVV-19–0369 and of the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic No. 1/0130/20 and No. 2/0144/21.
The authors have no competing interests as defined by Springer, or other interests that might be perceived to influence the results and/or discussion reported in this paper.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ISIAME2022), Olomouc, Czech Republic
Edited by Libor Machala
About this article
Cite this article
Sedlačková, K., Butvinová, B., Pavúk, M. et al. The effect of annealing atmosphere on the structural properties of FeSiBPCu alloys with different silicon content. Hyperfine Interact 243, 23 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10751-022-01806-1