Recent upgrades of the multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at TITAN, TRIUMF


A multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been installed and integrated into the TITAN experiment at TRIUMF. The MR-TOF-MS extends the capabilities and improves the performance of the TITAN experiment, for instance it provides fast isobar separation, short measurement cycles, yield measurements and broad-band beam diagnosis, and enhanced rate capabilities and dynamic range. Thereby, even more exotic nuclides become accessible at TITAN for experiments. Such improved capabilities of TITAN have been used in first experiments to investigate the sub-shell closure of neutron-rich nuclides at N = 32 and the r-process nucleo-synthesis for masses at A ∼ 85. The vacuum system, electronics and data-acquisition hardware and software have been recently upgraded. For the first time an isomeric state has been measured with TITANs MR-TOF-MS, 84mRb (excitation energy: 464 keV). The accurate measurement of excitation energies of low-lying isomeric states is possible due to the high mass resolving power of TITANs MR-TOF-MS and a specialized data-analysis procedure.


  1. 1.

    Dilling, J., Baartman, R., Bricault, P., Brodeur, M., Blomeley, L., Buchinger, F., Crawford, J., López-Urrutia, J.C., Delheij, P., Froese, M., Gwinner, G., Ke, Z., Lee, J., Moore, R., Ryjkov, V., Sikler, G., Smith, M., Ullrich, J., Vaz, J.: Int. J. Mass Spectr. 251(2), 198 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kwiatkowski, A.A., Andreoiu, C., Bale, J.C., Brunner, T., Chaudhuri, A., Chowdhury, U., Delheij, P., Ettenauer, S., Frekers, D., Gallant, A.T., Grossheim, A., Gwinner, G., Jang, F., Lennarz, A., Ma, T., Mané, E., Pearson, M.R., Schultz, B.E.M.: Hyperfine Interact. 225(1), 143 (2014)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lennarz, A., Grossheim, A., Leach, K.G., Alanssari, M., Brunner, T., Chaudhuri, A., Chowdhury, U., Crespo López-Urrutia, J.R., Gallant, A.T., Holl, M., Kwiatkowski, A.A., Lassen, J., Macdonald, T.D., Schultz, B.E., Seeraji, S., Simon, M.C., Andreoiu, C., Dilling, J., Frekers, D.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 082502 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Brodeur, M., Brunner, T., Champagne, C., Ettenauer, S., Smith, M., Lapierre, A., Ringle, R., Ryjkov, V.L., Audi, G., Delheij, P., Lunney, D., Dilling, J.: Phys. Rev. C 80, 044318 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Lapierre, A., Brodeur, M., Brunner, T., Ettenauer, S., Gallant, A., Simon, V., Good, M., Froese, M., López-Urrutia, J.C., Delheij, P., Epp, S., Ringle, R., Schwarz, S., Ullrich, J., Dilling, J.: Nucl. Inst. Methods Phys. Res. A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 624(1), 54 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S., Brunner, T., Chowdhury, U., Gallant, A.T., Simon, V.V., Brodeur, M., Chaudhuri, A., Mané, E., Simon, M.C., Andreoiu, C., Audi, G., Crespo López-Urrutia, J.R., Delheij, P., Gwinner, G., Lapierre, A., Lunney, D., Pearson, M.R., Ringle, R., Ullrich, J., Dilling, J.: Phys. Rev. C 91, 045504 (2015).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Dombsky, M., Bishop, D., Bricault, P., Dale, D., Hurst, A., Jayamanna, K., Keitel, R., Olivo, M., Schmor, P., Stanford, G: . Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 978 (2000)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Jesch, C., Dickel, T., Plaß, W.R., Short, D., Ayet San Andrés, S., Dilling, J., Geissel, H., Greiner, F., Lang, J., Leach, K.G., Lippert, W., Scheidenberger, C., Yavor, M.I.: Hyperfine Interact. 235(1), 97 (2015)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Plaß, W.R., Dickel, T., Ayet San Andrés, S., Ebert, J., Greiner, F., Hornung, C., Jesch, C., Lang, J., Lippert, W., Majoros, T., Short, D., Geissel, H., Haettner, E., Reiter, M.P., Rink, A.K., Scheidenberger, C., Yavor, M.I.: Phys. Scr. T166, 014069 (2015)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Plaß, W.R., Dickel, T., Czok, U., Geissel, H., Petrick, M., Reinheimer, K., Scheidenberger, C., Yavor, M.: Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 266(19–20), 4560 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Dickel, T., Plaß, W.R., Becker, A., Czok, U., Geissel, H., Haettner, E., Jesch, C., Kinsel, W., Petrick, M., Scheidenberger, C., Simon, A., Yavor, M.I.: Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 777, 172 (2015)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Plaß, W.R., Dickel, T., Scheidenberger, C.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 349–350, 134 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Dickel, T., Yavor, M.I., Lang, J., Plaß, W.R., Lippert, W., Geissel, H., Scheidenberger, C.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 412, 1 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Dickel, T., Plaß, W.R., Lippert, W., Lang, J., Yavor, M.I., Geissel, H., Scheidenberger, C.: J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectr. 28(6), 1079 (2017)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Reiter, M.P., et al.: Manuscript pending submission (2019)

  16. 16.

    Leistenschneider, E., Reiter, M.P., Ayet San Andrés, S., Kootte, B., Holt, J.D., Navrátil, P., Babcock, C., Barbieri, C., Barquest, B.R., Bergmann, J., Bollig, J., Brunner, T., Dunling, E., Finlay, A., Geissel, H., Graham, L., Greiner, F., Hergert, H., Hornung, C., Jesch, C., Klawitter, R., Lan, Y., Lascar, D., Leach, K.G., Lippert, W., McKay, J.E., Paul, S.F., Schwenk, A., Short, D., Simonis, J., Somà, V., Steinbrügge, R., Stroberg, S.R., Thompson, R., Wieser, M.E., Will, C., Yavor, M., Andreoiu, C., Dickel, T., Dillmann, I., Gwinner, G., Plaß, W.R., Scheidenberger, C., Kwiatkowski, A.A., Dilling, J.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 062503 (2018)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Reiter, M.P., Ayet San Andrés, S., Dunling, E., Kootte, B., Leistenschneider, E., Andreoiu, C., Babcock, C., Barquest, B.R., Bollig, J., Brunner, T., Dillmann, I., Finlay, A., Gwinner, G., Graham, L., Holt, J.D., Hornung, C., Jesch, C., Klawitter, R., Lan, Y., Lascar, D., McKay, J.E., Paul, S.F., Steinbrügge, R., Thompson, R., Tracy, J.L., Wieser, M.E., Will, C., Dickel, T., Plaß, W.R., Scheidenberger, C., Kwiatkowski, A.A., Dilling, J.: Phys. Rev. C 98, 024310 (2018)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Dickel, T., Plaß, W., Lang, J., Ebert, J., Geissel, H., Haettner, E., Jesch, C., Lippert, W., Petrick, M., Scheidenberger, C., Yavor, M.: Nucl. Inst. Methods Phys. Res. B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 317, 779 (2013). XVIth International Conference on ElectroMagnetic Isotope Separators and Techniques Related to their Applications, December 2–7, 2012 at Matsue, Japan

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Bergmann, J.: Datenaufnahme und Systemsteuerung eines Flugzeitmassenspektrometers mit Anwendungen. Master thesis, Universität Gießen (2015)

  20. 20.

    Kind, T., Fiehn, O.: BMC Bioinf. 8, 105 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ayet San Andrés, S, et al.: Submitted to PRC, arXiv:1901.11278 (2019)

  22. 22.

    Bollen, G., Kluge, H.J., König, M., Otto, T., Savard, G., Stolzenberg, H., Moore, R., Rouleau, G., Audi, G.: Phys. Rev. C 46(6), R2140 (1992)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Audi, G., Kondev, F.G., Wang, M., Huang, W.J., Naimi, S.: Chin. Phys. C 41(3), 030001 (2017)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We want to thanks Ryan Ringle for valuable input and discussion in the development of the peak identification routines. We thank Christian Lotze for his work on the voltage control software. This work was supported by National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), federal funding through TRIUMF by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) under under contracts no. 05P19RGFN1, 05P12RGFN8 and 05P15RGFN1, by Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen and GSI under the JLU-GSI strategic Helmholtzpartnership agreement, by HGS-HIRe, and by the Hessian Ministry for Science and Art (HMWK) through the LOEWE Center HICforFAIR and the LOEWE Focus AmbiProbe.

Author information




Corresponding author

Correspondence to Timo Dickel.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics (TCP 2018), Traverse City, Michigan, USA, 30 September–5 October 2018

Edited by Ryan Ringle, Stefan Schwarz, Alain Lapierre, Oscar Naviliat-Cuncic, Jaideep Singh and Georg Bollen

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dickel, T., San Andrés, S.A., Beck, S. et al. Recent upgrades of the multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at TITAN, TRIUMF. Hyperfine Interact 240, 62 (2019).

Download citation


  • Mass measurements
  • Exotic nuclides
  • Isomers
  • Instrument control
  • On- and offline data-analysis