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Patterns and metacommunity structure of aquatic insects (Trichoptera) in Amazonian streams depend on the environmental conditions

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Abstract

Species distribution depends on dispersal ability and species responses to the environment, where the anthropogenic landscape can facilitate or difficult for them to track the environmental gradients. Therefore, we assess how drivers and distribution patterns from Trichoptera metacommunity change in anthropogenically disturbed streams. We expected that, changes in land use and land cover increase the environmental heterogeneity among disturbed sites and promote the turnover of Trichoptera genera, since the importance of environment and space to the disturbed metacommunity should be higher in relation to the undisturbed sites. We sampled 62 stream sites in the Eastern Amazonia, classified as undisturbed or disturbed, assessing the environmental heterogeneity through Multivariate Dispersion analysis, the importance from environment and space through partial Redundancy Analysis and the metacommunity patterns by the Elements of the Metacommunity Structure. We showed that Trichoptera metacommunity was mainly determined by environment in both site groups, with high contribution from space only on disturbed sites, showing higher environmental heterogeneity. However, the distribution patterns differed between the site groups, being mostly nested or random on undisturbed sites and turnover based on disturbed ones. This may be related to the multiple impact types that simultaneously influence disturbed sites, increase heterogeneity, and affect distribution patterns.

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Data availability

Voucher specimens have been deposited in the “Laboratório de Ecologia e Conservação (LABECO)” aquatic insects’ collection at the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), Belém, Brazil.

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Not applicable.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Cikel LTDA, 33 Forest, Instituto Floresta Tropical (IFT), Biodiversity Research Consortium Brazil-Norway (BRC), and Hydro Alunorte Company for financing the present study and for logistical support. We also thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financing the projects “Influência dos diferentes tipos de uso do solo sobre a biodiversidade na Amazônia Oriental” (process 449314/2014-2), “Tempo de resiliência das comunidades aquáticas após o corte seletivo de madeira na Amazônia Oriental” (process 481015/2011-6) and Hydro Paragominas Company for supporting the research project “Monitoring Aquatic Biota of Streams on Areas of Paragominas Mining SA, Pará, Brazil” (process 011) through the BRC. We are grateful to BRC and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for granting the scholarship to GMC (process 88882.444581/2919-01) and to CNPq for the research productivity scholarship to LJ (process 304710/2019-9). We are also grateful to CAPES, through PROCAD-AMAZONIA/CAPES, for funding the senior internship scholarship for LJ to conduct research at the University of Florida (process 88881.474457/2020-01). APJF would also like to thank the Fundação Amazônia Paraense de Amparo à Pesquisa (FAPESPA) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) by scholarship (process 88882.176756/2018-01). APJF also thanks the Hydro Paragominas Company for supporting the by scholarship to supervision this study. Financial support was given by Hydro through the Biodiversity Research Consortium Brazil-Norway (BRC). Finally, we thank the Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação (PROPESP) and the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA) (Edital 01/2019) for funding for the English revision of the manuscript. We thank Mathew A Leibold for reviewing and suggesting the manuscript. This paper is number BRC0039 in the publication series of the BRC.

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The authors thank the funding institutions and companies mentioned in the acknowledgments, making it possible to collect data and grant scholarships from the first two authors.

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G.M.C., A.P.J.F., and L.J. conceived the ideas; A.P.J.F. and L.J. collected the data; G.M.C. designed the methodology and analyzed the data; G.M.C., A.P.J.F., and L.J. conducted the writing of the manuscript; and A.P.J.F. and L.J. supervised the project. All authors contributed critically to the drafts and gave final approval for publication.

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Correspondence to Gabriel Martins Cruz.

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Cruz, G.M., Faria, A.P.J. & Juen, L. Patterns and metacommunity structure of aquatic insects (Trichoptera) in Amazonian streams depend on the environmental conditions. Hydrobiologia 849, 2831–2843 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-022-04901-0

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