Recent waves of illegal deforestation for cattle pasture are damaging the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve and Rama-Kriol Territory of Nicaragua, with negative consequences to aquatic ecosystems and the people they support. This study creates a framework for how deforestation from cattle ranching causes shifts in stream community structure, mediated by changes in stream habitat over time. It integrates temporally explicit land use information with stream habitat, macroinvertebrate, freshwater shrimp, and fish community data to assess impacts of cattle ranching on 15 headwater streams. The deforestation history measure (DHM), a product of deforestation amount and time since deforestation for each catchment, strongly predicted stream habitat and biotic responses. Delayed effects of land-use change such as decreased allochthonous inputs (large wood, debris) and increased bank destabilization, sedimentation, flashiness, and the scouring effect were apparent in longer deforested catchments, causing lower richness and density and higher evenness of macroinvertebrates; lower shrimp abundance; and distinct changes in fish and invertebrate community composition. Both recently and longer deforested catchments had degraded riparia and smaller sized game fish. Otherwise, recently deforested catchments were more similar to forested catchments. Nicaragua’s understudied primary rainforest ecosystems should be high priority for research and conservation before they are lost.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Availability of data and material
The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Allan, J. D., 2004. Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35: 257-284.
Anderson, M. J., 2014. Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). Wiley Statsref: Statistics Reference Online: 1–15.
Angulo Sibaja, A., W. Bussing, C. Garita-Alvarado, & M. López, 2013. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of continental and insular Costa Rica: additions and nomenclatural revisions. Check List 9: 987.
Benjamini, Y., & Y. Hochberg, 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate: A practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal statistical society: series B (Methodological): 57: 289–300.
Benstead, J. P., M. M. Douglas, & C. M. Pringle, 2003. Relationships of stream invertebrate communities to deforestation in eastern Madagascar. Ecological Applications 13: 1473-1490.
Betts, J. T., 2019. Deforestation Degrades Rain Forest Stream Habitat and Biodiversity over Time in the Rama-Kriol Indigenous Territory, Southeast Nicaragua (Master’s thesis). Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Betts, J. T., J. F. Mendoza Espinoza, A. J. Dans, C. A. Jordan, J. L. Mayer, & G. R. Urquhart, 2020. Fishing with Pesticides Affects River Fisheries and Community Health in the Indio Maíz Biological Reserve, Nicaragua. Sustainability 12: 10152.
Bilby, R. E., & G. E. Likens, 1980. Importance of organic debris dams in the structure and function of stream ecosystems. Ecology 61: 1107-1113.
Bojsen, B. H., & R. Barriga, 2002. Effects of deforestation on fish community structure in Ecuadorian Amazon streams. Freshwater Biology 47: 2246–2260.
Bojsen, B. H., & D. Jacobsen, 2003. Effects of deforestation on macroinvertebrate diversity and assemblage structure in Ecuadorian Amazon streams. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 158: 317-342.
Bonan, G. B. (2008). Forests and climate change: forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests. Science 320: 1444-1449.
Bonvillain, C. P., B. T. Halloran, K. M. Boswell, W. E. Kelso, A. R. Harlan, & D. A. Rutherford, 2011. Acute physicochemical effects in a large river-floodplain system associated with the passage of Hurricane Gustav. Wetlands 31: 979.
Bradshaw, C. J., N. S. Sodhi, K.S. H. Peh, & B. W. Brook, 2007. Global evidence that deforestation amplifies flood risk and severity in the developing world. Global Change Biology 13: 2379-2395.
Brejão, G. L., D. J. Hoeinghaus, M. A. Pérez‐Mayorga, S. F. Ferraz, & L. Casatti, 2018. Threshold responses of Amazonian stream fishes to timing and extent of deforestation. Conservation Biology 32: 860-871.
Brooks, P. M., & B. D. Gardner, 1980. Effect of cattle dip containing toxaphene on the fauna of a South African river. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 6: 113-118.
Bussing, W. A. (1998). Freshwater Fishes of Costa Rica. University of Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.
Chan, E. K., Y. Zhang, & D. Dudgeon, 2008. Arthropod ‘rain’ into tropical streams: the importance of intact riparian forest and influences on fish diets. Marine and Freshwater Research 59: 653-660.
Covich, A. P., T. A. Crowl, S.L. Johnson, D. Varza, & D. L. Certain, 1991. Post-Hurricane Hugo increases in atyid shrimp abundances in a Puerto Rican montane stream. Biotropica 23: 448-454.
Covich, A. P., T. A. Crowl, & T. Heartsill-Scalley, 2006. Effects of drought and hurricane disturbances on headwater distributions of palaemonid river shrimp (Macrobrachium spp.) in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25: 99-107.
Dala‐Corte, R. B., A. S. Melo, T. Siqueira, L. M. Bini, R. T. Martins, A. M. Cunico, A. M. Pes, A. L. Magalhães, B. S. Godoy, C. G. Leal, C. S. Monteiro‐Júnior…, 2020. Thresholds of freshwater biodiversity in response to riparian vegetation loss in the Neotropical region. Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 1391-1402.
Dans, A., G. Luna, & C. A. Jordan, 2015. Estado poblacional del Almendro como indicador de la disponibilidad de hábitat de Lapa Verde en el Sureste de Nicaragua. Ciencia e Interculturalidad 15: 114-124.
De Cáceres, M., & P. Legendre, 2009. Associations between species and groups of sites: indices and statistical inference. Ecology 90: 3566-3574.
De Paula, F. R., S. F. de Barros Ferraz, P. Gerhard, C. A. Vettorazzi, & A. Ferreira, 2011. Large woody debris input and its influence on channel structure in agricultural lands of Southeast Brazil. Environmental management 48: 750.
Domínguez, E., & H. R. Fernández, 2009. Macroinvertebrados bentónicos sudamericanos: sistemática y biología. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán.
Dudgeon, D., A. H. Arthington, M. O. Gessner, Z. I. Kawabata, D. J. Knowler, C. Lévêque, R. J. Naiman, A. H. Prieur-Richard, D. Soto, M. L. Stiassny, & C. A. Sullivan, 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81: 163-182.
Dufrêne, M., & P. Legendre, 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67: 345-366.
Encalada, A. C., J. Calles, V. Ferreira, C. M. Canhoto, & M. A. Graca, 2010. Riparian land use and the relationship between the benthos and litter decomposition in tropical montane streams. Freshwater Biology 55: 1719-1733.
Faith, D. P., P. R. Minchin, & L. Belbin, 1987. Compositional dissimilarity as a robust measure of ecological distance. Vegetatio 69: 57-68.
Feijó-Lima, R., S. M. Mcleay, E. F. Silva-Junior, F. Tromboni, T. P. Moulton, E. Zandonà, & S. A. Thomas, 2018. Quantitatively describing the downstream effects of an abrupt land cover transition: buffering effects of a forest remnant on a stream impacted by cattle grazing. Inland Waters 8: 294-311.
Fenoglio, S., G. Badino, & F. Bona, 2002. Benthic macroinvertebrate communities as indicators of river environment quality: an experience in Nicaragua. Revista de Biología Tropical 50: 1125–1131.
Ferraro, P. J., 1994. Natural Resource Use in the Southeastern Rain Forests of Madagascar and the Local Impacts of Establishing the Ranomafana National Park. (Master’s thesis). Duke University, Durham.
Ferraz, S. F. d. B., C. A. Vettorazzi, & D. M. Theobald, 2009. Using indicators of deforestation and land-use dynamics to support conservation strategies: a case study of central Rondônia, Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1586-1595.
Fugère, V., A. Kasangaki, & L. J. Chapman, 2016. Land use changes in an afrotropical biodiversity hotspot affect stream alpha and beta diversity. Ecosphere 7: e01355.
García, L. V. 2004. Escaping the Bonferroni iron claw in ecological studies. Oikos 105: 657-663.
Gellis, A., 1993. The effects of hurricane Hugo on suspended‐sediment loads, Lago loíza Basin, Puerto Rico. Earth surface processes and landforms 18: 505-517.
Gergel, S. E., M. G. Turner, J. R. Miller, J. M. Melack, & E. H. Stanley, 2002. Landscape indicators of human impacts to riverine systems. Aquatic Sciences 64: 118-128.
Gobierno Territorial Rama y Kriol, 2018. Action Plan: Protection and sustainable use of the Indio-Maíz Biological Reserve within the Rama and Kriol Territory and adjacent areas. Gobierno Territorial Rama y Kriol, Bluefields.
Griscom, H. P., B. W. Griscom, & M. S. Ashton, 2009. Forest regeneration from pasture in the dry tropics of Panama: effects of cattle, exotic grass, and forested riparia. Restoration Ecology 17: 117-126.
Gupta, A., 2000. Hurricane floods as extreme geomorphic events. In Hassan, M. A., O. Slaymaker, & S. M. Berkowicz, (eds), The Hydrology-Geomorphology Interface: Rainfall, Floods, Sedimentation, Land Use. A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference on Drainage Basin Dynamics and Morphology. IAHS Pubs, Jerusalem: 215–228.
Gutiérrez-Fonseca, P. E., A. Ramírez, & C. M. Pringle, 2018. Large-scale climatic phenomena drive fluctuations in macroinvertebrate assemblages in lowland tropical streams, Costa Rica: The importance of ENSO events in determining long-term (15y) patterns. PLOS ONE 13: e0191781.
Hammer, O., D. A. T. Harper, & P. D. Ryan, 2001. PAST: Palaeontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4: 9.
Hansen, M. C., P. V. Potapov, R. Moore, M. Hancher, S. A. Turubanova, A. Tyukavina, & A. Kommareddy, 2013. High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science 342: 850-853.
Harding, J. S., E. F. Benfield, P. V. Bolstad, G. S. Helfman, & E. B. D. Jones, 1998. Stream biodiversity: the ghost of land use past. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 14843-14847.
Härer, A., J. Torres‐Dowdall, & A. Meyer, 2017. The imperiled fish fauna in the Nicaragua Canal zone. Conservation Biology 31: 86-95.
Heartsill-Scalley, T., & T. M. Aide, 2003. Riparian vegetation and stream condition in a tropical agriculture–secondary forest mosaic. Ecological Applications 13: 225-234.
Hetrick, N. J., & J. F. Bromaghin, 2006. Sampling bias of hook‐and‐line gear used to capture rainbow trout in Gertrude Creek, Alaska. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 26: 13-23.
Hughes, R. M., & D. V. Peck, 2008. Acquiring data for large aquatic resource surveys: the art of compromise among science, logistics, and reality. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27: 837-859.
IBM SPSS, 2019. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 26.0. IBM Corporation, Armonk.
Iñiguez–Armijos, C., A. Leiva, H. G. Frede, H. Hampel, & L. Breuer, 2014. Deforestation and benthic indicators: how much vegetation cover is needed to sustain healthy Andean streams? PLOS ONE 9: e105869.
Iwata, T., S. Nakano, & M. Inoue, 2003. Impacts of past Riparian Deforestation on Stream Communities in a Tropical Rain Forest in Borneo. Ecological Applications 13: 461–473.
Jordan, C. A., C. J. Schank, G. R. Urquhart, & A. J. Dans, 2016. Terrestrial mammal occupancy in the context of widespread forest loss and a proposed interoceanic canal in Nicaragua's decreasingly remote south Caribbean region. PLOS ONE 11: e0151372.
Jost, L. 2006. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 113: 363-375.
Kaufmann, P.R., P. Levine, E.G. Robison, C. Seeliger, D.V. Peck, 1999. Quantifying Physical Habitat in Wadeable Streams. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Kaufmann, P. R., J. M. Faustini, D. P. Larsen, & M. A. Shirazi, 2008. A roughness-corrected index of relative bed stability for regional stream surveys. Geomorphology 99: 150-170.
Leal, C. G., P. S. Pompeu, T. A. Gardner, R. P. Leitão, R. M. Hughes, P. R. Kaufmann, J. Zuanon, F. R. de Paula, S. F. Ferraz, J. R. Thomson, & R. Mac Nally, 2016. Multi-scale assessment of human-induced changes to Amazonian instream habitats. Landscape Ecology 31: 1725-1745.
Leitão, R. P., J. Zuanon, D. Mouillot, C. G. Leal, R. M. Hughes, P. R. Kaufmann, S. Villéger, P. S. Pompeu, D. Kasper, F. R. de Paula, & S. F. Ferraz, 2017. Disentangling the pathways of land use impacts on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazon streams. Ecography 41: 219-232.
Lewis Jr, W. M., S. K. Hamilton, & J. F. Saunders III, 2006. Rivers of northern south America. In Cushing, C.E., K.W. Cummins, & G.W. Minshall (eds), River and Stream Ecosystems. Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam: 219-256.
Lorion, C.M., & B.P. Kennedy, 2009a. Relationships between deforestation, riparian forest buffers and benthic macroinvertebrates in neotropical headwater streams. Freshwater Biology 54: 165-180.
Lorion, C. M., & B. P. Kennedy, 2009b. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams. Ecological Applications 19: 468-479.
Luke, S. H., E. M. Slade, C. L. Gray, K. V. Annammala, J. Drewer, J. Williamson, A. L. Agama, M. Ationg, S. L. Mitchell, C. S. Vairappan, & M. J. Struebig, 2019. Riparian buffers in tropical agriculture: Scientific support, effectiveness and directions for policy. Journal of Applied Ecology 56: 85-92.
Maes J. M., & T. Salvatierra-Suarez, 2014. Nicaragua. In Alonso-EguíaLis, P., J. M. Mora, B. Campbell, & M. Springer, (eds), Diversidad, conservación y uso de los macroinvertebrados dulceacuícolas de México, Centroamérica, Colombia, Cuba y Puerto Rico. Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Aguade la Universidad Autónoma, Querétaro: 347-375.
Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales, 1988. Indice de Mapas Topografícos [map] (ca. 1:50,000). Managua, Nicaragua: Dirección General de Geodesia y Cartografía.
Mažeika, S., P. Sullivan, M. C. Watzin, & W. C. Hession, 2004. Understanding stream geomorphic state in relation to ecological integrity: evidence using habitat assessments and macroinvertebrates. Environmental Management 34: 669-683.
McDowell, W. H., 2001. Hurricanes, people, and riparian zones: controls on nutrient losses from forested Caribbean watersheds. Forest Ecology and Management 154: 443-451.
Miyake, Y., T. Hiura, & S. Nakano, 2005. Effects of frequent streambed disturbance on the diversity of stream invertebrates. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 162: 465-480.
Molina, M. C., C. A. Roa-Fuentes, J. O. Zeni, & L. Casatti, 2017. The effects of land use at different spatial scales on instream features in agricultural streams. Limnologica 65: 14-21.
Montgomery, D. R., & J. M. Buffington, 1997. Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin 109: 596-611.
Mori, G. B., F. R. de Paula, S. F. de Barros Ferraz, A. F. M, Camargo, & L. A. Martinelli, 2015. Influence of landscape properties on stream water quality in agricultural catchments in Southeastern Brazil. Annales de Limnologie-International Journal of Limnology 51: 11-21.
Myre, E., & R. Shaw, 2006. The turbidity tube: simple and accurate measurement of turbidity in the field. Michigan Technological University, Houghton.
O’Callaghan, P., M. Jocqué, & M. Kelly-Quinn, 2015. Nutrient-and sediment-induced macroinvertebrate drift in Honduran cloud forest streams. Hydrobiologia 758: 75-86.
O’Callaghan, P., M. Kelly-Quinn, E. Jennings, P. Antunes, M. O’Sullivan, O. Fenton, & D. Ó hUallacháin, 2018. Impact of Cattle Access to Watercourses: Literature Review on Behalf of the COSAINT Project. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Oksanen, J., F. G. Blanchet, R. Kindt, P. Legendre, P. R. Minchin, R. B. O’hara, G. L. Simpson, P. Solymos, M. H. H. Stevens, H. Wagner, & M. J. Oksanen, 2013. Package ‘vegan’. Community ecology package, version 2.
Pelicice, F. M., V. M. Azevedo‐Santos, J. R. Vitule, M. L. Orsi, D. P. Lima Junior, A. L. Magalhães, P. S. Pompeu, M. Petrere Jr, & A. A. Agostinho, 2017. Neotropical freshwater fishes imperilled by unsustainable policies. Fish and fisheries 18: 1119-1133.
Phang, S. C., M. Cooperman, A. J. Lynch, E. A. Steel, V. Elliott, K. J. Murchie, S. J. Cooke, S. Dowd, & I. G. Cowx, 2019. Fishing for conservation of freshwater tropical fishes in the Anthropocene. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29: 103-1051.
Phillips, L. T., 2017. Modeling the effects of subsistence livelihoods on mammalian occupancy and understanding the importance of values held by Miskito forest users for carnivore conservation in working forests (Master’s thesis). Michigan State University, East Lansing.
R Core Team, 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna.
Ramírez, A., & P. E. Gutiérrez-Fonseca, 2014. Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature. Revista de Biología Tropical 62: 155-167.
Recha, J. W., J. Lehmann, M. T. Walter, A. Pell, L. Verchot, & M. Johnson, 2012. Stream discharge in tropical headwater catchments as a result of forest clearing and soil degradation. Earth Interactions 16: 1-18.
Reid, A. J., A. K. Carlson, I. F. Creed, E. J. Eliason, P. A. Gell, P. T. Johnson, K. A. Kidd, T. J. MacCormack, J. D. Olden, S. J. Ormerod, & J. P. Smol, 2018. Emerging threats and persistent conservation challenges for freshwater biodiversity. Biological Reviews 94: 849-873.
Rican, O., L. Pialek, K. Dragova, & J. Novak, 2016. Diversity and evolution of the Middle
Roldán, G., 1988. Guía para el estudio de los macroinvertebrados acuáticos del Departamento de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, Fondo FEN, Medellín.
Saenz Marín, N.R., 2020. Manual de procedimientos legales ante la ganadería y otras invasiones en áreas protegidas y tierras comunales de Nicaragua. Global Widlife Conservation and FUNIDES, Managua.
Salvatierra, T. 2014. Macroinvertebrados Acuáticos como indicadores de la calidad de las aguas en tres microcuencas en Tola, Rivas, Nicaragua. Revista Científica Agua y Conocimiento 1: 1-12.
Schwendel, A. C., R. G. Death, I. C. Fuller, & M. K. Joy, 2010. Linking disturbance and stream invertebrate communities: how best to measure bed stability. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 30: 11-24.
Springer, M., A. Ramirez, & P. Hanson, 2010. Fresh water macroinvertebrates of Costa Rica I. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58: V-XIII.
Strand, M., & R. W. Merritt, 1999. Impacts of livestock grazing activities on stream insect communities and the riverine environment. American Entomologist 45: 13-29.
Suga, C. M., & M. O. Tanaka, 2013. Influence of a forest remnant on macroinvertebrate communities in a degraded tropical stream. Hydrobiologia 703: 203-213.
Teresa, F. B., L. Casatti, & M.V. Cianciaruso, 2015. Functional differentiation between fish assemblages from forested and deforested streams. Neotropical Ichthyology 13: 361–370.
Terra, B. D. F., R. M. Hughes, & F. G. Araújo, 2016. Fish assemblages in Atlantic Forest streams: the relative influence of local and catchment environments on taxonomic and functional species. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 25: 527-544.
van Zyl, J., 2001. The shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM): A breakthrough in remote sensing of topography, Acta Astronautica 48: 559–565
Wantzen, K. M., 1998. Effects of siltation on benthic communities in clear water streams in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen, 26: 1155-1159.
Wantzen, K. M., 2006. Physical pollution: effects of gully erosion on benthic invertebrates in a tropical clear‐water stream. Aquatic conservation: Marine and Freshwater ecosystems 16: 733-749.
Wantzen, K., & J. Mol, 2013. Soil erosion from agriculture and mining: a threat to tropical stream ecosystems. Agriculture 3: 660-683.
Warton, D. I., S. T. Wright, & Y. Wang, 2012. Distance‐based multivariate analyses confound location and dispersion effects. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3: 89-101.
Wassenaar, T., P. Gerber, P. H. Verburg, M. Rosales, M. Ibrahim, & H. Steinfeld, 2007. Projecting land use changes in the Neotropics: The geography of pasture expansion into forest. Global Environmental Change 17: 86-104.
Wickham, H., 2016. ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Williams, M. R., T. R. Fisher, & J. M. Melack, 1997. Solute dynamics in soil water and groundwater in a central Amazon catchment undergoing deforestation. Biogeochemistry 38: 303-335.
Wohl, E., S. K. Hinshaw, J. E. Scamardo, & P. E. Gutiérrez‐Fonseca, 2019. Transient organic jams in Puerto Rican mountain streams after hurricanes. River Research and Applications 35: 280-289.
Wright, S. J. 2005. Tropical forests in a changing environment. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20: 553-560
Wright, J. P., & A.S. Flecker, 2004. Deforesting the riverscape: the effects of wood on fish diversity in a Venezuelan piedmont stream. Biological Conservation 120: 439-447.
Zeni, J. O., M. A. Pérez‐Mayorga, C. A. Roa‐Fuentes, G. L. Brejão, & L. Casatti, 2019. How deforestation drives stream habitat changes and the functional structure of fish assemblages in different tropical regions. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 29: 1238-1252.
Our gratitude goes to the Rama and Kriol community leaders and forest rangers who from the beginning were supportive of our work and consented to and advised on the conduct of the work in their communities and territory. Thanks to the Consejo Regional Autónomo Costa Caribe Sur for the appropriate permits required for the study. Thanks to numerous people from the Rama and Kriol communities near the streams who assisted with the field work, and to the Nestor Gonzalez Aleman and the Centro de Investigaciones Acuáticas de la BICU for their collaboration, field work, and lab space. Many thanks to Monika Springer and her lab team for space and support at the University of Costa Rica in San José, and to their Zoological Museum for a space to keep specimens in perpetuity. Thanks to Dr. Pablo Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Dr. Wills Flowers, Darha Solano-Ulate, Alejandra Jiménez Fretes, Jorge San Jil, Arturo Angulo Sibaja, and Carlos Garita-Alvarado for expert help with identifications. Thanks to Dr. Kendra Cheruvilil, Dr. Chris Jordan, Dr. Eric Benbow, Lauren Phillips, and Dr. Dana Infante for comments on previous versions of this manuscript.
This work was funded by a United States Student Fulbright Award for Nicaragua and Costa Rica from the US Department of State (Institute of International Education), and by the following awards at Michigan State University: The Robert C. Ball and Betty A. Ball Fisheries and Wildlife Fellowship, the Rose Graduate Fellowship Fund in Water Research Graduate Student Award, the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Critical Needs Summer Fellowship, and the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies Graduate Student Research Grant.
Conflict of interest
The authors did their due diligence to avoid bias or other influences on the quality of the study or the data that could have been caused by study funders/affiliations (U.S. Dept. Of State, MSU). There were no anticipated conflicts of interest.
The code used to analyze data during the current study is available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Fish sampling methodology was approved via the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) office at Michigan State University, AUF# 12/17–220-00.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Guest editors: David J. Hoeinghaus, Jaquelini O. Zeni, Gabriel L. Brejão, Rafael P. Leitão & Renata G. Frederico / Neotropical Stream Fish Ecology in a Changing Landscape
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Betts, J.T., Urquhart, G.R., Román-Heracleo, J. et al. Effects of deforestation from cattle ranching over time on protected rainforest streams in the Rama-Kriol Territory, Nicaragua. Hydrobiologia 849, 4547–4568 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-021-04684-w
- Indio Maíz Biological Reserve
- Land-use change
- Stream habitat