Genetic and morphological variation within species are determined by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which jointly or separately can promote population divergence. In freshwater systems, the structure of the basins, geographic distance, climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene as well as extant environmental variation are important drivers of population divergence. Xiphophorus hellerii is a fish widely distributed in basins of the Gulf of Mexico slope. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences, geometric morphometrics and ecological niche modeling to investigate the roles of geographic and environmental factors in population divergence of X. hellerii. We found strong genetic structure conforming to the Stream Hierarchy and isolation by distance models. Demographic tests and ecological niche modeling suggested that the niche and populations of the species underwent contractions and expansions during the Pleistocene. Body shape of X. hellerii varied among basins and hydrological regions. Temperature seems to affect body shape, as individuals with shallow bodies were found in basins with low temperature and high altitudes. We found significant relationships between genetics, morphology, geography and the environment. Our study suggests that X. hellerii from different basins and hydrological regions have followed independent evolutionary routes and that environmental and geographical factors have played an important role in population divergence.
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We have deposited control region sequences in Genbank under Accessions Numbers MH187969-MH187986. The morphometrics datasets generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
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We would like to thank Armando Hernández and Denisse Maldonado Sánchez for their help in the field and in the laboratory. Collecting permits were granted by the Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca (CONAPESCA).
This work was supported by research funds from the Red de Biología Evolutiva, Instituto de Ecología, A.C. (20012-11-080 to C.G.-R.), and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACyT) provided a scholarship (584238 to J.A.R.-M.).
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Rocamontes-Morales, J.A., Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, C., Rios-Cardenas, O. et al. Genetic and morphological differentiation in the green swordtail fish, Xiphophorus hellerii: the influence of geographic and environmental factors. Hydrobiologia 848, 4599–4622 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-021-04664-0
- Mitochondrial DNA
- Geometric morphometrics
- Ecological niche modeling