The anthropic gradient determines the taxonomic diversity of aquatic insects in Amazonian streams

Abstract

Anthropic activities are one of the main drivers of change in the environmental characteristics of streams and the diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates. We evaluated the influence of an anthropic gradient (varying degrees of impact) on the genera level alpha and beta diversity of the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) in 48 eastern Amazonian streams. These insects were sampled using a dipnet, and the anthropic gradient was represented by the activities observed in the channel and the catchment of each stream. We found that increasing anthropic impact reduced the alpha diversity of the EPT. The Total Beta Diversity (BDTotal) showed a moderate degree of variation in streams. The streams with the greatest Local Contribution to Beta Diversity (LCBD) had the lowest alpha diversity of EPT, while the genera with the greatest Species Contribution to Beta Diversity (SCBD) were the most abundant and widely distributed among the streams. Thus, the increase in anthropic impacts reduced the alpha diversity of the EPT and indirectly influenced the uniqueness, emphasizing the importance of using different components of the diversity to understand the effects of anthropic impacts on Amazonian streams.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Cikel LTDA, 33 Forest, Instituto Floresta Tropical (IFT), Biodiversity Research Consortium Brazil-Norway (BRC), and the Hydro Alunorte Company for financing the present study and for providing logistical support. We also thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financing the projects “Influência dos diferentes tipos de uso do solo sobre a biodiversidade na Amazônia Oriental” (process 449314/2014-2), “Tempo de resiliência das comunidades aquáticas após o corte seletivo de madeira na Amazônia Oriental” (process 481015/2011-6) and the Hydro Paragominas Company for supporting the research project “Monitoring the Aquatic Biota of Streams in Areas of Paragominas Mining SA, Pará, Brazil” (process 011) through the BRC. This article is number BRC0028 in the publication series of the BRC.  We are also grateful to the Fundação de Amparo e Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa (FADESP) for granting a scholarship to CKSP; to BRC and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for granting the scholarship to APJF (process 88882.176756/2018-01) and to CNPq for granting a scholarship to LBC (process 154761/2018-4), as well as for a research productivity fellowship to LJ (process 304710/2019-9). We are also grateful to CAPES, through PROCAD-AMAZONIA/CAPES, for funding a senior internship for LJ to conduct research at the University of Florida (process 88881.474457/2020-01). Finally, we thank the Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação (PROPESP) at UFPA (Edital 01/2018) for funding the revision of this manuscript into English.

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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by CKSP, APJF and LBC. The first draft of the manuscript was written by CKSP and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Carina Kaory Sasahara de Paiva.

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de Paiva, C.K.S., Faria, A.P.J., Calvão, L.B. et al. The anthropic gradient determines the taxonomic diversity of aquatic insects in Amazonian streams. Hydrobiologia 848, 1073–1085 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-021-04515-y

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Keywords

  • Land use
  • Beta diversity
  • LCBD
  • SCBD
  • Aquatic macroinvertebrate