Skip to main content

Relative importance of Conservation Reserve Programs to aquatic insect biodiversity in an agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA

Abstract

The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in the USA offer farmers government financial incentives to take erosive agricultural lands out of production. Many conservation practices are used along streams to improve habitat for stream biota. However, the ecological benefits of these programs to streams are yet to be demonstrated. This study investigates the responses of communities of three sensitive aquatic insect orders (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera or EPT) to CRP and CREP practices in the Kaskaskia River basin, a predominantly agricultural watershed in Illinois, USA. A total of 10,373 EPT specimens were examined from 84 sites across the basin during 2013–2015. Nine environmental variables were used to account for variance in EPT taxonomic diversity, and sets of best regression models were selected based on Akaike information criterion (AICc). AICc importance values and hierarchical variance partitioning revealed three important variables associated with EPT taxa richness: link (number of first order tributaries), soil permeability, and urban land. Two important variables were associated with Shannon and Simpson diversity measures: link and dissolved oxygen. The percentage of CRP/CREP land in the watershed was less important, suggesting that this mosaic of conservation practices as currently implemented in the basin may not affect EPT taxonomic diversity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  • Abu-Zreig, M., R. P. Rudra, M. N. Lalonde, H. R. Whiteley & N. K. Kaushik, 2004. Experimental investigation of runoff reduction and sediment removal by vegetated filter strips. Hydrological Processes 18: 2029–2037.

    Google Scholar 

  • Alexander, R. B., R. A. Smith, G. E. Schwarz, E. W. Boyer, J. V. Nolan & J. W. Brakebill, 2008. Differences in phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River Basin. Environmental Science and Technology 42: 822–830.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allan, J. D., 2004. Landscapes and riverscapes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35: 257–284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barbour, M. T., J. Gerritsen, B. D. Snyder & J. B. Stribling, 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates, and fish, 2nd ed. EPA 841-B-99-002. US EPA, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

  • Barton, D. R. & M. E. D. Farmer, 1997. The effects of conservation tillage practices on benthic invertebrate communities in headwater streams in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Environmental Pollution 96: 207–215.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barton, K., 2015. MuMIn: multi-model inference. R package version 1.15.1. R Project for Statistical Computing, Vienna.

  • Baylis, K., S. Peplow, G. Rausser & L. Simon, 2008. Agri-environmental policies in the EU and United States: a comparison. Ecological Economics 65: 753–764.

    Google Scholar 

  • Benoy, G. A., A. B. Sutherland, J. M. Culp & R. B. Brua, 2012. Physical and ecological thresholds for deposited sediments in streams in agricultural landscapes. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 31–40.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Best, L. B., H. Campa, K. E. Kemp, R. J. Robel, M. R. Ryan, J. A. Savidge, H. P. Weeks & S. R. Winterstein, 1997. Bird abundance and nesting in CRP fields and cropland in the Midwest: a regional approach. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25: 864–877.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blann, K. L., J. L. Anderson, G. R. Sands & B. Vondracek, 2009. Effects of agricultural drainage on aquatic ecosystems: a review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 39: 909–1001.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Borin, M., M. Vianello, F. Morari & G. Zanin, 2005. Effectiveness of buffer strips in removing pollutants in runoff from a cultivated field in North-East Italy. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 105: 101–114.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boyer, K. L., D. R. Berg & S. V. Gregory, 2003. Riparian management for wood in rivers. In Gregory, S. V., K. L. Boyer & A. M. Gurnell (eds), The Ecology and Management of Wood in World Rivers. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MA: 407–420.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brenden, T. O., R. D. Clark, A. R. Cooper, P. W. Seelbach, L. Wang, S. S. Aichele, E. G. Bissell & J. S. Stewart, 2006. A GIS framework for collecting, managing, and analyzing multiscale landscape variables across large regions for river conservation and management. American Fisheries Society Symposium 48: 49–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Budescu, D. V., 1993. Dominance analysis: a new approach to the problem of relative importance of predictors in multiple regression. Psychological Bulletin 114: 542–551.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burks, B. D., 1953. The mayflies, or Ephemeroptera, of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 26: 1–216.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burnham, K. P. & D. R. Anderson, 2002. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 2nd ed. Springer, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burnham, K. P. & D. R. Anderson, 2004. Multimodel inference: understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods Research 33: 261–304.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cao, Y., C. P. Hawkins, J. Olsen & M. A. Kosterman, 2007. Modeling natural environmental gradients improves the accuracy and precision of diatom-based indicators. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 566–585.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cao, Y., R. E. DeWalt, J. L. Robinson, T. Tweddale, L. Hinz & M. Pessino, 2013. Using Maxent to model the historic distributions of stonefly species in Illinois streams: the effects of regularization and threshold selections. Ecological Modelling 259: 30–39.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cao, Y., L. Hinz, B. Metzke, J. Stein & A. Holtrop, 2016. Modeling and mapping fish abundance across wadeable streams of Illinois, USA, based on landscape-level environmental variables. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 73: 1031–1046.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley & V. H. Smith, 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8: 559–568.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carter, J. L. & V. H. Resh, 2001. After site selection and before data analysis: sampling, sorting, and laboratory procedures used in stream benthic macroinvertebrate monitoring programs by USA state agencies. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 658–682.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chambers, P. A., D. J. McGoldrick, R. B. Brua, C. Vis, J. M. Culp & G. A. Benoy, 2012. Development of environmental thresholds for nitrogen and phosphorus in streams. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 7–20.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chevan, A. & M. Sutherland, 1991. Hierarchical partitioning. American Statistician 45: 90–96.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiang, L. C., Y. Yuan, M. Mehaffey, M. Jackson & I. Chaubey, 2012. Assessing SWAT’s performance in the Kaskaskia River watershed as influenced by the number of calibration stations used. Hydrological Processes 28: 676–687.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christensen, V. G., K. E. Lee, C. A. Sanocki, E. H. Mohring & R. L. Kiesling, 2009. Water-Quality and biological characteristics and responses to agricultural land retirement in three streams of the Minnesota River Basin, water years 2006–2008: U.S. Geological Survey, Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5215, Reston, VA.

  • Cuffney, T. F., M. D. Bilger & A. M. Haigler, 2007. Ambiguous taxa: effects on the characterization and interpretation of invertebrate assemblages. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26: 286–307.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeWalt, R. E. & S. A. Grubbs, 2011. Updates to the stonefly fauna of Illinois and Indiana. Illiesia 7: 31–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeWalt, R. E., C. Favret & D. W. Webb, 2005. Just how imperiled are aquatic insects? A case study of stoneflies (Plecoptera) in Illinois. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 98: 941–950.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeWalt, R. E., M. D. Maehr, U. Neu-Becker & G. Stueber, 2018. Plecoptera Species File Online. Version 5.0/5.0. http://Plecoptera.SpeciesFile.org. Accessed 23 Aug 2018.

  • Engel, S., S. Pagiola & S. Wunder, 2008. Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: an overview of the issues. Ecological Economics 65: 663–674.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erman, D. C. & N. A. Erman, 1984. The response of stream macroinvertebrates to substrate size and heterogeneity. Hydrobiologia 108: 75–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, J. R., M. C. Quist, S. L. Wigen, A. J. Schaefer, T. W. Stewart & T. M. Isenhart, 2010. Assemblage and population-level responses of stream fish to riparian buffers at multiple spatial scales. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 139: 185–200.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fore, J. D., S. P. Sowa, D. L. Galat & D. D. Diamond, 2017. Assessing effects of sediment-reducing agricultural conservation practices on stream fishes. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 72: 326–342.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frainer, A., L. E. Polvi, R. Jansson & B. G. McKie, 2018. Enhanced ecosystem functioning following stream restoration: the roles of habitat heterogeneity and invertebrate species traits. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 377–385.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frison, T. H., 1935. The stoneflies, or Plecoptera, of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 20: 281–467.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gabel, K. W., J. D. Wehr & K. M. Truhn, 2012. Assessment of the effectiveness of best management practices for streams draining agricultural landscapes using diatoms and macroinvertebrates. Hydrobiologia 680: 247–264.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greenwood, M. J., J. S. Harding, D. K. Niyogi & A. R. McIntosh, 2012. Improving the effectiveness of riparian management for aquatic invertebrates in a degraded agricultural landscape: stream size and land-use legacies. Journal of Applied Ecology 49: 213–222.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grimley, D. A. & N. D. Webb, 2010. Surficial geology of Red Bud Quadrangle, Randolph, Monroe, and St. Clair Counties, Illinois: Illinois State Geological Survey, Illinois Geologic Quadrangle Map, IGQ Red Bud-SG, 2 sheets, 1:24,000; report.

  • Grubaugh, J. W., J. B. Wallace & E. S. Houston, 1996. Longitudinal changes of macroinvertebrate communities along an Appalachian stream continuum. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 53: 896–909.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagen, C. A., D. C. Pavlacky, K. Adachi, F. E. Hornsby, T. J. Rintz & L. L. McDonald, 2016. Multiscale occupancy modeling provides insights into range-wide conservation needs of lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). The Condor 118: 597–612.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haroldson, K. J., R. O. Kimmel, M. R. Riggs & A. H. Berner, 2006. Association of ring-necked pheasant, gray partridge, and meadowlark abundance to Conservation Reserve Program grasslands. Journal of Wildlife Management 70: 1276–1284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, C. P. & M. R. Vinson, 2000. Weak correspondence between landscape classifications and stream invertebrate communities: implications for bioassessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19: 501–517.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, C. P., Y. Cao & B. Roper, 2010. Method of predicting reference condition biota affects the performance and interpretation of ecological indices. Freshwater Biology 55: 1066–1085.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hellerstein, D. M., 2017. The US Conservation Reserve Program: the evolution of an enrollment mechanism. Land Use Policy 63: 601–610.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herkert, J. R., 2007. Conservation Reserve Program benefits on Henslow’s sparrows within the United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2749–2751.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hill, J. M., J. F. Egan, G. E. Stauffer & D. R. Diefenbach, 2014. Habitat availability is a more plausible explanation than insecticide acute toxicity for U.S. grassland bird species declines. PLoS ONE 9: e98064.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hitchcock, S. W., 1974. Guide to the insects of connecticut. Part VII. The Plecoptera or stoneflies of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Bulletin 107: 1–262.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holmes, R., D. G. Armanini & A. G. Yates, 2016. Effects of best management practice on ecological condition: does location matter? Environmental Management 57: 1062–1076.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Holtrop, A. M., D. Day, C. Dolan & J. Epifanio, 2005. Ecological classification of rivers for environmental assessment and management: stream attribution and model preparation. Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Aquatic Ecology and Conservation Technical Report 2005/04. http://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/10265/inhscaecv02005i00004_opt.pdf?sequence=2.

  • IDNR, 2001. Critical Trends in Illinois Ecosystems. Illinois Department of Natural Resources Office of Realty and Environmental Planning. Springfield, IL

  • IEPA, 2010. Macroinvertebrate-Index of Biotic Integrity (mIBI) Tolerance List and Functional Group Classification, January 2010.

  • IEPA, 2012. Lower Kaskaskia River Watershed TMDL Report. Springfield, IL.

  • Ice, G., 2004. History of innovative best management practice development and its role in addressing water quality limited waterbodies. Journal of Environmental Engineering 130: 684–689.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobsen, D., 2008. Low oxygen pressure as a driving factor for the altitudinal decline in taxon richness of stream macroinvertebrates. Oecologia 154: 795–807.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jost, L., 2006. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 113: 363–375.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jost, L., 2007. Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Ecology 88: 2427–2439.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kantrud, H. A., 1993. Duck nest success on Conservation Reserve Program land in the prairie pothole region. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 48: 238–242.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karr, J. R., L. A. Toth & D. R. Dudley, 1985. Fish communities of midwestern rivers: a history of degradation. BioScience 35: 90–95.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kleijn, D. & W. J. Sutherland, 2003. How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 947–969.

    Google Scholar 

  • Knight, S. S. & K. L. Boyer, 2007. Effects of conservation practices on aquatic habitats and fauna. Fish and wildlife response to farm bill conservation practices. The Wildlife Society Technical Review 7: 85–103.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krutz, L. J., S. A. Senseman, R. M. Zablotowicz & M. A. Matocha, 2005. Reducing herbicide runoff from agricultural fields with vegetative filter strips: a review. Weed Science 53: 353–367.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lau, J. K., T. E. Lauer & M. L. Weinman, 2006. Impacts of channelization on stream habitats and associated fish communities in east central Indiana. American Midland Naturalist 156: 319–330.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lenat, D. R., 1984. Agriculture and stream water quality: a biological evaluation of erosion control procedures. Environmental Management 8: 333–343.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lenat, D. R., 1988. Water quality assessment using a qualitative collection method for benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of North American Benthological Society 7: 222–233.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lenat, D. R. & V. H. Resh, 2001. Taxonomy and stream ecology: the benefits of genus-and species-level identifications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 287–298.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liu, Y., B. A. Engel, D. C. Flanagan, M. W. Gitau, S. K. McMillan & I. Chaubey, 2017. A review on effectiveness of best management practices in improving hydrology and water quality: needs and opportunities. Science of the Total Environment 601–602: 580–593.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mac Nally, R., 2000. Regression and model-building in conservation biology, biogeography and ecology: the distinction between-and reconciliation of -’predictive’ and ‘explanatory’ models. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 655–671.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malmqvist, B. & S. Rundle, 2002. Threats to the running water ecosystems of the world. Environmental Conservation 29: 134–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, D. W., A. H. Fayram, J. C. Panuska, J. Baumann & J. Hennessey, 2008. Positive effects of agricultural land use changes on coldwater fish communities in southwest Wisconsin streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28: 944–953.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mattingly, R. L., E. E. Herricks & D. M. Johnston, 1993. Channelization and levee construction of Illinois: review and implications for management. Environmental Management 17: 781–795.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mayfly Central 2018. Mayfly Central. http://www.entm.purdue.edu/mayfly/. Accessed 12 June 2018

  • Mazerolle, M. J., 2015. AICcmodavg: Model Selection and Multimodel Inference Based on (Q)AIC(c). R Package Version 2.0-3. R Project for Statistical Computing, Vienna.

  • Meals, D. W., S. A. Dressing & T. E. Davenport, 2010. Lag time in water quality response to best management practices: a review. Journal of Environmental Quality 39: 85–96.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Merritt, R. W., K. W. Cummins & M. B. Berg, 2008. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 4th ed. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minshall, G. W., R. C. Petersen & C. F. Nimz, 1985. Species richness in streams of different size from the same drainage basin. The American Naturalist 125: 16–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morse, J. C., 2018. Trichoptera World Checklist. http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm. Accessed 12 June 2018

  • Nerbonne, B. A. & B. Vondracek, 2001. Effects of local land use on physical habitat, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in the Whitewater River, Minnesota, USA. Environmental Management 28: 87–99.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nimon, K., F. Oswald & J. K. Roberts, 2013. yhat: Interpreting Regression Effects. R Package Version 2.0-0. R Project for Statistical Computing, Vienna.

  • Olea, P. P., P. Mateo-Tomás & A. de Frutos, 2010. Estimating and modelling bias of the hierarchical partitioning public-domain software: implications in environmental management and conservation. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11698.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Owens, P. N. & D. E. Walling, 2002. Changes in sediment sources and floodplain deposition rates in the catchment of the River Tweed, Scotland, over the last 100 years: the impact of climate and land use change. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 27: 403–423.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paller, M. H., W. L. Specht & S. A. Dyer, 2006. Effects of stream size on taxa richness and other commonly used benthic bioassessment metrics. Hydrobiologia 568: 309–316.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paul, M. J. & J. L. Meyer, 2001. Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution, and Systematics 32: 333–365.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petersen, I., Z. Masters, A. G. Hildrew & S. J. Ormerod, 2004. Dispersal of adult aquatic insects in catchments of differing land use. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 934–950.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petersen, I., Z. Masters, S. J. Ormerod & A. G. Hildrew, 2006. Sex ratio and maturity indicate the local dispersal and mortality of adult stoneflies. Freshwater Biology 51: 1543–1551.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pont, D., B. Hugueny, U. Beier, D. Goffaux, A. Melcher, R. Noble, C. Rogers, N. Roset & S. Schmutz, 2006. Assessing river biotic condition at a continental scale: a European approach using functional metrics and fish communities. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 70–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poole, K. E. & J. A. Downing, 2004. Relationship of declining mussel biodiversity to stream-reach and watershed characteristics in an agricultural landscape. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23: 114–125.

    Google Scholar 

  • Poulton, B. C. & K. W. Stewart, 1991. The stoneflies of the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains (Plecoptera). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 38: 1–116.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quinn, G. P. & M. J. Keough, 2002. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rabotyagov, S. S., T. D. Campbell, M. White, J. G. Arnold, J. Atwood, M. L. Norfleet, C. L. Kling, P. W. Gassman, A. Valcu, J. Richardson, R. E. Turner & N. N. Rabalais, 2014. Cost-effective targeting of conservation investments to reduce the northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 18530–18535.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Randolph, R. P. & W. P. McCafferty, 1998. Diversity and distribution of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin New Series 13: 1–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reichelderfer, K. & W. G. Boggess, 1988. Government decision making and program performance: the case for the Conservation Reserve Program. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 70: 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Resh, V. H. & G. Grodhaus, 1983. Aquatic Insects in Urban Environments. In Frankie, G. W. & C. S. Koehler (eds), Urban Entomology: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Praeger Publishers, New York: 247–276.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reynolds, R. E., T. L. Shaffer, R. W. Renner, W. E. Newton & B. D. J. Batt, 2001. Impact of the Conservation Reserve Program on duck recruitment in the U.S. prairie pothole region. Journal of Wildlife Management 65: 765–780.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ross, H. H., 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 23: 1–326.

    Google Scholar 

  • Royer, T. V., M. B. David & L. E. Gentry, 2006. Timing of riverine export of nitrate and phosphorus from agricultural watersheds in Illinois: implications for reducing nutrient loading to the Mississippi River. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 4126–4131.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sangunett, B. M., 2005. Reference Conditions for Streams in the Grand Prairie Natural Division of Illinois. M. S. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

  • Santhi, C., P. M. Allen, R. S. Muttiah, J. G. Arnold & P. Tuppad, 2008. Regional estimation of base flow for the conterminous United States by hydrologic landscape regions. Journal of Hydrology 351: 139–153.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scherr, S. J. & J. A. McNeely, 2008. Biodiversity conservation and agricultural sustainability: towards a new paradigm of ‘ecoagricultural ‘ landscapes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 363: 477–494.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schielzeth, H., 2010. Simple means to improve the interpretability of regression coefficients. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 1: 103–113.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwegman, J. E., M. Hutchison, G. Paulson, G. B. Fell, W. M. Shepherd & J. White, 1973. Comprehensive Plan for the Illinois Nature Preserves Commission: Part 2. The Natural Divisions of Illinois. Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, Rockford, IL.

  • Shields, F. D., S. S. Knight & C. M. Cooper, 2000. Warmwater stream bank protection and fish habitat: a comparative study. Environmental Management 26: 317–328.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shrestha, S., J. Farrelly, M. Eggleton & Y. Chen, 2017. Effects of conservation wetlands on stream habitat, water quality and fish communities in agricultural watersheds of the lower Mississippi River Basin. Ecological Engineering 107: 99–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smiley, P. C., K. W. King & N. R. Fausey, 2011. Influence of herbaceous riparian buffers on physical habitat, water chemistry, and stream communities within channelized agricultural headwater streams. Ecological Engineering 37: 1314–1323.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, R. F., P. D. Venugopal, M. E. Baker & W. O. Lamp, 2015. Habitat filtering and adult dispersal determine the taxonomic composition of stream insects in an urbanizing landscape. Freshwater Biology 60: 1740–1754.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sode, A. & P. Wiberg-Larsen, 1993. Dispersal of adult Trichoptera at a Danish forest brook. Freshwater Biology 30: 439–446.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sowa, S. P., M. Herbert, S. Mysorekar, G. M. Annis, K. Hall, A. P. Nejadhashemi, S. A. Woznicki, L. Wang & P. J. Doran, 2017. How much conservation is enough? Defining implementation goals for healthy fish communities in agricultural rivers. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42: 1302–1321.

    Google Scholar 

  • State of Illinois, 2013. Illinois Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program 2013 Report. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Springfield, IL.

  • State of Illinois, 2015. Illinois Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program 2015 Report. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Springfield, IL.

  • Stuart, D. & S. Gillon, 2013. Scaling up to address new challenges to conservation on US farmland. Land Use Policy 31: 223–236.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stubbs, M., 2010. Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP): status and issues. Congressional Research Report for Members and Committees of Congress R40197. USDA, Washington, DC. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/R40197.pdf. Accessed 16 May 2016.

  • Stubbs, M., 2014. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): status and issues. Congressional Research Report for Members and Committees of Congress R42783. USDA, Washington, DC. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/R42783.pdf. Accessed 17 May 2016.

  • Stubbs, M., 2017. Agricultural conservation: a guide to programs. Congressional Research Report for Members and Committees of Congress R40763. USDA, Washington, DC. http://www.nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/R40763.pdf. Accessed 24 June 2018.

  • Sweeney, B. W. & J. D. Newbold, 2014. Streamside forest buffer width needed to protect stream water quality, habitat, and organisms: a literature review. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 50: 560–584.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tilman, D., K. G. Cassman, P. A. Matson, R. Naylor & S. Polasky, 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418: 671–677.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Uchida, E., J. Xu & S. Rozelle, 2005. Grain for Green: cost-effectiveness and sustainability of China’s conservation set-aside program. Land Economics 81: 247–264.

    Google Scholar 

  • USDA, 2011. The environmental benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program, United States-2010. http://www.fsa.usda.gov/Internet/FSA_File/united_states.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2016.

  • USDA, 2012. Assessment of the effects of conservation practices on cultivated cropland in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. Report prepared by the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1042093.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2018

  • USDA, 2017. Conservation Reserve Program Statistics, CRP Contract and Summary Statistics-September 2017. http://www.fsa.usda.gov/Assets/USDA-FSA-Public/usdafiles/Conservation/PDF/September2017Summary.pdf. Accessed 12 Jan 2018

  • USEPA, 2000. Nutrient criteria technical guidance manual: rivers and streams. EPA-822-B-00-002. USEPA, Washington, DC.

  • USEPA, 2007. Hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: an update by the EPA Science Advisory Board. EPA-SAB-08-004. USEPA, Washington, DC.

  • Valentin, C., F. Agus, R. Alamban, A. Boosaner, J. P. Bricquet, V. Chaplot, T. de Guzman, A. de Rouw, J. L. Janeau, D. Orange, K. Phachomphonh, Do Duy Phai, P. Podwojewski, O. Ribolzi, N. Silvera, K. Subagyono, J. P. Thiébaux, Tran Duc Toan & T. Vadari, 2008. Runoff and sediment losses from 27 upland catchments in Southeast Asia: impact of rapid land use changes and conservation practices. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 128: 225–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Dijk, P. M., F. J. P. M. Kwaad & M. J. G. Klapwijk, 1996. Retention of water and sediment by grass strips. Hydrological Processes 10: 1069–1080.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedell & C. E. Cushing, 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37: 130–137.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, C. & R. Mac Nally, 2013. hier.part: hierarchical partitioning. R package version 1.0-4. R Project for Statistical Computing, Vienna.

  • Walsh, C. J., A. H. Roy, J. W. Feminella, P. D. Cottingham, P. M. Groffman & R. P. Morgan, 2005. The urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 706–723.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, C. J., K. A. Waller, J. Gehling & R. Mac Nally, 2007. Riverine invertebrate communities are degraded more by catchment urbanisation than by riparian deforestation. Freshwater Biology 52: 574–587.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, L., J. Lyons & P. Kanehl, 2002. Effects of watershed best management practices on habitat and fish in Wisconsin streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 38: 663–680.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang, L., P. W. Seelbach & J. Lyons, 2006. Effects of levels of human disturbance on the influence of catchment, riparian, and reach-scale factors on fish communities. American Fisheries Society Symposium 48: 199–219.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wiggers, R., 1997. Geology Underfoot in Illinois. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, Montana.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu, Y. & J. Chen, 2012. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China. Science of the Total Environment 441: 159–168.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yates, A. G., R. C. Bailey & J. A. Schwindt, 2007. Effectiveness of best management practices in improving stream ecosystem quality. Hydrobiologia 583: 331–344.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank Brian Metzke (INHS, Springfield, Illinois) for supplying GIS data, Leon Hinz (INHS, Springfield) for suggestions on potential analyses, Allison Gardner (University of Maine, Orono) for initial statistical considerations, and James Woolbright (engineering consultant, Atlanta, Georgia) for computational support. This project was funded by Grant RC13CREP01 from the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to Hinz, Cao, and DeWalt.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Eric J. South.

Additional information

Handling editor: Checo Colón-Gaud

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 11 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (XLSX 23 kb)

Supplementary material 3 (XLSX 17 kb)

Supplementary material 4 (XLSX 12 kb)

Supplementary material 5 (XLSX 48 kb)

Supplementary material 6 (XLSX 11 kb)

Supplementary material 7 (XLSX 11 kb)

10750_2018_3842_MOESM8_ESM.tif

Fig. S1 Standardized model average coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals for predictors in top 15 AICc-ranked regression models explaining Shannon diversity variability in Kaskaskia River basin streams sampled 2013–2015. CRP/CREP is the proportion of Conservation Reserve and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program land at the local watershed level. Supplementary material 8 (TIFF 612 kb)

10750_2018_3842_MOESM9_ESM.tif

Fig. S2 Standardized model average coefficients (β) with 95% confidence intervals for predictors in top 18 AICc-ranked regression models explaining Simpson diversity variability in Kaskaskia River basin streams sampled 2013–2015. CRP/CREP is the proportion of Conservation Reserve and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program land at the local watershed level. Supplementary material 9 (TIFF 575 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

South, E.J., Edward DeWalt, R. & Cao, Y. Relative importance of Conservation Reserve Programs to aquatic insect biodiversity in an agricultural watershed in the Midwest, USA. Hydrobiologia 829, 323–340 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-018-3842-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-018-3842-2

Keywords

  • Conservation practices
  • Macroinvertebrates
  • Illinois streams
  • EPT taxa
  • Bioassessment