, Volume 827, Issue 1, pp 89–121 | Cite as

Deeper knowledge of shallow waters: reviewing the invertebrate fauna of southern African temporary wetlands

  • Matthew S. BirdEmail author
  • Musa C. Mlambo
  • Ryan J. Wasserman
  • Tatenda Dalu
  • Alexandra J. Holland
  • Jenny A. Day
  • Martin H. Villet
  • David T. Bilton
  • Helen M. Barber-James
  • Luc Brendonck
Review Paper


Temporary lentic wetlands are becoming increasingly recognised for their collective role in contributing to biodiversity at the landscape scale. In southern Africa, a region with a high density of such wetlands, information characterising the fauna of these systems is disparate and often obscurely published. Here we provide a collation and synthesis of published research on the aquatic invertebrate fauna inhabiting temporary lentic wetlands of the region. We expose the poor taxonomic knowledge of most groups, which makes it difficult to comment on patterns of richness and endemism. Only a few groups (e.g. large branchiopods, ostracods, copepods and cladocerans) appear to reach higher richness and/or endemicity in temporary wetlands compared to their permanent wetland counterparts. IUCN Red List information is lacking for most taxa, thus making it difficult to comment on the conservation status of much of the invertebrate fauna. However, except for a few specialist groups, many of the taxa inhabiting these environments appear to be habitat generalists that opportunistically exploit these waterbodies and this is hypothesised as one of the reasons why endemism appears to be low for most taxa. Given that taxonomy underpins ecology, the urgent need for more foundational taxonomic work on these systems becomes glaringly apparent.


Aquatic invertebrates Wetland invertebrates Ephemeral wetlands Temporary ponds Southern Africa African wetlands 



For specialist comment on particular sections of this manuscript we wish to thank the following: Dr R Gerecke, University of Tübingen (Hydrachnidia); Dr E Suárez-Morales, El Colegio del la Frontera Sur (Copepoda); Prof D. Christopher Rogers, Kansas Biological Survey (Branchiopoda); Prof M Samways, Stellenboach University (Odonata); Prof T Artois, Hasselt University (Turbellaria); Dr K Van Damme, Senckenberg Institute (Cladocera); Prof F Govedich, Southern Utah University (Hirudinea); and Prof C Appleton, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Mollusca). We acknowledge use of the infrastructure and equipment provided by the NRF-SAIAB Research Platform and the funding channelled through the NRF-SAIAB Institutional Support system. This study was partially funded by the National Research Foundation (Grant No. 110507). Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors, and the NRF does not accept any liability in this regard. The Department of Sport, Recreation, Arts and Culture (Eastern Cape Government, South Africa) is acknowledged for supporting the Albany Museum.


  1. Abebe, E., I. Andrássy & W. Traunspurger, 2006. Freshwater Nematodes: Ecology and Taxonomy. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  2. Abebe, E., W. Decraemer & P. De Ley, 2008. Global diversity of nematodes (Nematoda) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 67–78.Google Scholar
  3. Agnarsson, I. & M. Kuntner, 2007. Taxonomy in a changing world: seeking solutions for a science in crisis. Systematic Biology 56(3): 531–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anlauf, A., 1990. Cyst formation of Tubifex tubifex (Müller)—an adaptation to survive food deficiency and drought. Hydrobiologia 190(1): 79–82.Google Scholar
  5. Anusa, A., H. Ndagurwa & C. Magadza, 2012. The influence of pool size on species diversity and water chemistry in temporary rock pools on Domboshawa Mountain, northern Zimbabwe. African Journal of Aquatic Science 37(1): 89–99.Google Scholar
  6. Appleton, C., 2002a. Platyhelminthes. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 88–110.Google Scholar
  7. Appleton, C., 2002b. Mollusca. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 6: Arachnida and Mollusca. WRC Report No. TT 182/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 42–125.Google Scholar
  8. Appleton, C., B. Sharp & D. le Sueur, 1995. Wetlands and water-related parasitic diseases of man in Southern Africa. In Cowan, G. I. (ed.), Wetlands of South Africa. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria: 227–246.Google Scholar
  9. Appleton, C. C., B. A. Curtis, L. E. Alonso & J. Kipping, 2003. Freshwater invertebrates of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. In: Alonso, L. E. & L.-A. Nordin (eds) RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment, Vol. 27, 58–69.Google Scholar
  10. Armitage, P. D., 1995. Behaviour and ecology of adults. In Armitage, P. D., P. S. Cranston & L. C. V. Pinder (eds), The Chironomidae: Biology and Ecology of Non-Biting Midges. Springer, Dordrecht: 194–224.Google Scholar
  11. Artois, T., W. Willems, E. De Roeck, M. Jocqué & L. Brendonck, 2004. Freshwater Rhabdocoela (Platyhelminthes) from ephemeral rock pools from Botswana, with the description of four new species and one new genus. Zoological Science 21(10): 1063–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Balian, E., H. Segers, K. Martens & C. Lévéque, 2008. The freshwater animal diversity assessment: an overview of the results. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 627–637.Google Scholar
  13. Barber-James, H. M. & J.-L. Gattolliat, 2012. How well are Afrotropical mayflies known? Status of current knowledge, practical applications, and future directions. Inland Waters 2(1): 1–9.Google Scholar
  14. Barber-James, H. M. & C. Lugo-Ortiz, 2003. Ephemeroptera. In de Moor, I., J. Day & F. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of southern Africa, Vol. 7: Insecta I – Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Plecoptera. WRC Report no. TT 207/03, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 16–142.Google Scholar
  15. Barber-James, H. M., J.-L. Gattolliat, M. Sartori & M. D. Hubbard, 2008. Global diversity of mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Insecta) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 339–350.Google Scholar
  16. Barnard, K., 1926. A study of the freshwater isopodan and amphipodan Crustacea of South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 14(1): 139–215.Google Scholar
  17. Batzer, D. P., R. B. Rader & S. A. Wissinger, 1999. Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Batzer, D. & D. Boix, 2016. Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands: An International Perspective on Their Ecology. Springer, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  19. Baxevanis, A. D., S. Maniatsi, D. Kouroupis, K. Marathiotis, I. Kappas, H. Kaiser & T. J. Abatzopoulos, 2014. Genetic identification of South African Artemia species: invasion, replacement and co-occurrence. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 94(04): 775–785.Google Scholar
  20. Bebber, D. P., J. R. Wood, C. Barker & R. W. Scotland, 2014. Author inflation masks global capacity for species discovery in flowering plants. New Phytologist 201(2): 700–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Belk, D., H. Dumont & N. Munuswamy, 1991. Studies on Large Branchiopod Biology and Aquaculture. Kluwer Academic, Belgium.Google Scholar
  22. Bilton, D. T., 2013. Prosthetops wolfbergensis sp. nov.—a giant amongst the ‘minute moss beetles’, with new data on other members of the genus (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae). Zootaxa 3666(3): 345–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bilton, D. T., 2017. Water beetles from the Bokkeveld Plateau: a semi-arid hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Zootaxa 4268(2): 191–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bilton, D. T., J. R. Freeland & B. Okamura, 2001. Dispersal in freshwater invertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32(1): 159–181.Google Scholar
  25. Bilton, D. T., E. F. Toussaint, C. R. Turner & M. Balke, 2015. Capelatus prykei gen. et sp. n. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Copelatinae) – a phylogenetically isolated diving beetle from the Western Cape of South Africa. Systematic Entomology 40(3): 520–531.Google Scholar
  26. Bird, M. S., 2012. Effects of habitat transformation on temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, South Africa. PhD thesis, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  27. Bird, M. S. & J. A. Day, 2014. Wetlands in changed landscapes: the influence of habitat transformation on the physico-chemistry of temporary depression wetlands. PLoS ONE 9(2): e88935.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Bird, M. S. & J. A. Day, 2016. Impacts of terrestrial habitat transformation on temporary wetland invertebrates in a sclerophyllous Sand fynbos landscape. Hydrobiologia 782(1): 169–185.Google Scholar
  29. Bird, M. S., M. C. Mlambo & J. A. Day, 2013. Macroinvertebrates as unreliable indicators of human disturbance in temporary depression wetlands of the south-western Cape, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 720: 19–37.Google Scholar
  30. Biström, O. & A. N. Nilsson, 2006. Taxonomic revision of the Ethiopian genus Canthyporus (Coleoptera Dytiscidae). Memorie della Societa Entomologica Italiana 85(1): 209–306.Google Scholar
  31. Boettger, K., 1974. The biology of Sphaerodema grassei ghesquierei. Studies of central African belostomatids (Heteroptera, Insecta). Archiv für Hydrobiologie 74: 100–122.Google Scholar
  32. Bohonak, A. J., B. P. Smith & M. Thornton, 2004. Distributional, morphological and genetic consequences of dispersal for temporary pond water mites. Freshwater Biology 49(2): 170–180.Google Scholar
  33. Boxshall, G. A. & D. Defaye, 2008. Global diversity of copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 195–207.Google Scholar
  34. Brain, C., 2002. Rotifera. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 116–135.Google Scholar
  35. Brendonck, L., 1995. A new branchipodid genus and species (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) from South Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 115(4): 359–372.Google Scholar
  36. Brendonck, L., 1996. Diapause, quiescence, hatching requirements: what we can learn from large freshwater branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca, Conchostraca). Hydrobiologia 320(1–3): 85–97.Google Scholar
  37. Brendonck, L., 1999. Conchostraca. In Day, J., I. de Moor, B. Stewart & A. Louw (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 2: Crustacea I – Notostraca, Anostraca, Conchostraca and Cladocera. WRC Report No. TT 121/00, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 59–80.Google Scholar
  38. Brendonck, L. & A. Coomans, 1994. Egg morphology in African Streptocephalidae (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Part 1: South of Zambezi and Kunene rivers. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 3(Suppl. 99 (Monographische Beiträge): 313–334.Google Scholar
  39. Brendonck, L. & L. De Meester, 2003. Egg banks in freshwater zooplankton: evolutionary and ecological archives in the sediment. Hydrobiologia 491(1–3): 65–84.Google Scholar
  40. Brendonck, L. & B. Riddoch, 1997. Anostracans (Branchiopoda) of Botswana: morphology, distribution, diversity, and endemicity. Journal of Crustacean Biology 17(1): 111–134.Google Scholar
  41. Brendonck, L. & B. J. Riddoch, 1999. Wind-borne short-range egg dispersal in anostracans (Crustacea: Branchiopoda). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 67(1): 87–95.Google Scholar
  42. Brendonck, L. & W. D. Williams, 2000. Biodiversity in wetlands of dry regions (drylands). In Gopal, B., W. J. Junk & J. A. Davis (eds), Biodiversity in Wetlands: Assessment, Function and Conservation, Vol. 1., Backthuys Publishers Leiden, The Neteherlands: 181–194.Google Scholar
  43. Brendonck, L., B. Riddoch, V. Van de Weghe & T. Van Dooren, 1998. The maintenance of egg banks in very short-lived pools-a case study with anostracans (Branchiopoda). Archiv für Hydrobiologie 52(Special issues): 141–161.Google Scholar
  44. Brendonck, L., L. De Meester & B. J. Riddoch, 2000a. Regional structuring of genetic variation in short-lived rock pool populations of Branchipodopsis wolfi (Crustacea: Anostraca). Oecologia 123(4): 506–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Brendonck, L., M. Hamer, B. Riddoch & M. Seaman, 2000b. Branchipodopsis species—specialists of ephemeral rock pools. African Journal of Aquatic Science 25(1): 98–104.Google Scholar
  46. Brendonck, L., E. Michels, L. De Meester & B. Riddoch, 2002. Temporary pools are not ‘enemy-free’. Hydrobiologia 486(1): 147–159.Google Scholar
  47. Brendonck, L., D. C. Rogers, J. Olesen, S. Weeks & W. R. Hoeh, 2008. Global diversity of large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 167–176.Google Scholar
  48. Brittain, J. E. & M. Sartori, 2003. Ephemeroptera. In Resh, V. H. & R. T. Carde´ (eds) Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press, Amsterdam: 373–380.Google Scholar
  49. Brown, D. S., 1994. Freshwater Snails of Africa and Their Medical Importance. Taylor & Francis Ltd, London.Google Scholar
  50. Brucet, S., D. Boix, R. López-Flores, A. Badosa, R. Moreno-Amich & X. D. Quintana, 2005. Zooplankton structure and dynamics in permanent and temporary Mediterranean salt marshes: taxon-based and size-based approaches. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 162(4): 535–555.Google Scholar
  51. Calhoun, A. J., D. M. Mushet, K. P. Bell, D. Boix, J. A. Fitzsimons & F. Isselin-Nondedeu, 2017. Temporary wetlands: challenges and solutions to conserving a ‘disappearing’ecosystem. Biological Conservation 211: 3–11.Google Scholar
  52. Capinera, J. L., 2008. Encyclopedia of Entomology, 2nd ed. Springer, New York: 4346 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Chakona, A., C. Phiri, C. H. Magadza & L. Brendonck, 2008. The influence of habitat structure and flow permanence on macroinvertebrate assemblages in temporary rivers in northwestern Zimbabwe. Hydrobiologia 607(1): 199–209.Google Scholar
  54. Clark, T. E. & M. J. Samways, 1996. Dragonflies (Odonata) as indicators of biotope quality in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology 33(5): 1001–1012.Google Scholar
  55. Clausnitzer, V., K.-D. B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W. R. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M. J. Samways, J. P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10(3): 129–134.Google Scholar
  56. Coetzee, M., 2002. Culicidae. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 9: Diptera. WRC Report No. TT 201/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 57–74.Google Scholar
  57. Collinson, N., J. Biggs, A. Corfield, M. Hodson, D. Walker, M. Whitfield & P. Williams, 1995. Temporary and permanent ponds: an assessment of the effects of drying out on the conservation value of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Biological Conservation 74(2): 125–133.Google Scholar
  58. Corrêa, D. D., 1951. Freshwater Nemertines from the Amazon region and from South Africa. Universidade de Sao Pualo Boletins da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras 16: 257–269.Google Scholar
  59. Cranston, P. S., 2014. A new putatively cryptobiotic midge, Polypedilum ovahimba sp. nov.(Diptera: Chironomidae), from southern Africa. Austral Entomology 53(4): 373–379.Google Scholar
  60. Cumberlidge, N., 2009. The status and distribution of freshwater crabs. In Smith, K. G., M. D. Diop, M. Niane & W. R. T. Darwell (eds), The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in West Africa: IUCN and Wetlands International Report. Gland, Cambridge: 56–72.Google Scholar
  61. Curtis, B., 1991. Freshwater macro-invertebrates of Namibia. Madoqua 17(2): 163–187.Google Scholar
  62. da Silva, J. M. & S. Willows-Munro, 2016. A review of over a decade of DNA barcoding in South Africa: a faunal perspective. African Zoology 51(1): 1–12.Google Scholar
  63. Dahms, H.-U., 1995. Dormancy in the Copepoda—an overview. Hydrobiologia 306(3): 199–211.Google Scholar
  64. Dalu, T., O. L. Weyl, P. W. Froneman & R. J. Wasserman, 2016. Trophic interactions in an austral temperate ephemeral pond inferred using stable isotope analysis. Hydrobiologia 768(1): 81–94.Google Scholar
  65. Dalu, T., R. J. Wasserman & M. T. Dalu, 2017a. Agricultural intensification and drought frequency increases may have landscape-level consequences for ephemeral ecosystems. Global Change Biology 23(3): 983–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Dalu, T., R. J. Wasserman, P. W. Froneman & O. L. Weyl, 2017b. Trophic isotopic carbon variation increases with pond’s hydroperiod: evidence from an Austral ephemeral ecosystem. Scientific Reports 7: 7572.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Dalu, T., R. J. Wasserman, T. J. Vink & O. L. Weyl, 2017c. Sex and species specific isotopic niche specialisation increases with trophic complexity: evidence from an ephemeral pond ecosystem. Scientific Reports 7: 43229.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Daniels, S. R., E. E. Phiri & J. Bayliss, 2014. Renewed sampling of inland aquatic habitats in southern Africa yields two novel freshwater crab species (Decapoda: Potamonautidae: Potamonautes). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 171(2): 356–369.Google Scholar
  69. Davies, R. W., L. Linton & F. Wrona, 1982. Passive dispersal of four species of freshwater leeches (Hirudinoidea) by ducks. Freshwater Invertebrate Biology 1: 40–44.Google Scholar
  70. Davis, C. L., 2011. Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria: 92 pp.Google Scholar
  71. Day, J., 1990. Environmental correlates of aquatic faunal distribution in the Namib Desert. In Seely, M. K. (ed.) Namib Ecology: 25 Years of Namib Research. Transvaal Museum Monograph No. 7. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria: 99–107.Google Scholar
  72. Day, J. & J. Day, 2002. Polychaeta. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of southern Africa, Vol. 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 193–202.Google Scholar
  73. Day, J., E. Day, V. Ross-Gillespie & A. Ketley, 2010. The assessment of temporary wetlands during dry conditions. WRC Report TT434/09, Water Research Commission, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  74. De Block, M., M. A. McPeek & R. Stoks, 2008. Stronger compensatory growth in a permanent-pond Lestes damselfly relative to temporary-pond Lestes. Oikos 117(2): 245–254.Google Scholar
  75. de Klerk, A. R. & V. Wepener, 2013. Macroinvertebrate assemblage changes as an indicator of water quality of perennial endorheic reed pans on the Mpumalanga highveld, South Africa. Journal of Environmental Protection 4: 10–21.Google Scholar
  76. de Meillon, B. & W. Wirth, 2002. Ceratopogonidae. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 9: Diptera. WRC Report No. TT 201/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 50–56.Google Scholar
  77. de Moor, F. & K. Scott, 2003. Trichoptera. In de Moor, I., J. Day & F. C. De Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 8: Insecta II – Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera, Vol. 8. WRC Report No. TT 214/03, 84-181.Google Scholar
  78. de Moor, F. & J. Day, 2013. Aquatic biodiversity in the mediterranean region of South Africa. Hydrobiologia 719(1): 237–268.Google Scholar
  79. de Necker, L., M. Ferreira, J. J. van Vuren & W. Malherbe, 2016. Aquatic invertebrate community structure of selected endorheic wetlands (pans) in South Africa. Inland Waters 6(3): 303–313.Google Scholar
  80. De Roeck, E. R., T. Artois & L. Brendonck, 2005. Consumptive and non-consumptive effects of turbellarian (Mesostoma sp.) predation on anostracans. Hydrobiologia 542(1): 103–111.Google Scholar
  81. De Roeck, E. R., B. J. Vanschoenwinkel, J. A. Day, Y. Xu, L. Raitt & L. Brendonc, 2007. Conservation status of large branchiopods in the Western Cape, South Africa. Wetlands 27(1): 162–173.Google Scholar
  82. De Roeck, E., A. Waterkeyn & L. Brendonck, 2010. Life-history traits of Streptocephalus purcelli Sars, 1898 (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from temporary waters with different phenology. Water SA 36(3): 323–328.Google Scholar
  83. Dettner, K., 1982. Description of the larvae of Acilius duvergeri (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae), with keys to larvae of European species of genus Acilius and of the European genera of subfamily Dytiscinae. Aquatic Insects 4(2): 81–88.Google Scholar
  84. Di Sabatino, A., H. Smit, R. Gerecke, T. Goldschmidt, N. Matsumoto & B. Cicolani, 2008. Global diversity of water mites (Acari, Hydrachnidia; Arachnida) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595: 303–315.Google Scholar
  85. Dijkstra, K.-D. B., 2003. A review of the taxonomy of African Odonata: finding ways to better identification and biogeographic insight. Cimbebasia 18: 191–206.Google Scholar
  86. Dijkstra, K.-D. B., J. Kipping & N. Mézière, 2015. Sixty new dragonfly and damselfly species from Africa (Odonata). Odonatologica 44(4): 447–678.Google Scholar
  87. Dodson, S. I., 1987. Animal assemblages in temporary desert rock pools: aspects of the ecology of Dasyhelea sublettei (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 6(1): 65–71.Google Scholar
  88. Dumont, H. J., 1983. Biogeography of rotifers. Hydrobiologia 104: 19–30.Google Scholar
  89. Dumont, H. & S. Negrea, 2002. Introduction to the class Branchiopoda. In Dumont, H. J. (ed.), Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World 19. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.Google Scholar
  90. Escalera-Vázquez, L. H. & L. Zambrano, 2010. The effect of seasonal variation in abiotic factors on fish community structure in temporary and permanent pools in a tropical wetland. Freshwater Biology 55(12): 2557–2569.Google Scholar
  91. Farnesi, L. C., R. F. S. Menna-Barreto, A. J. Martins, D. Valle & G. L. Rezende, 2015. Physical features and chitin content of eggs from the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles aquasalis and Culex quinquefasciatus: connection with distinct levels of resistance to desiccation. Journal of Insect Physiology 83: 43–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ferreira, M., V. Wepener & J. J. Van Vuren, 2011. The occurrence of large branchiopod crustaceans in perennial pans: a research note. African Zoology 46(1): 176–178.Google Scholar
  93. Ferreira, M., V. Wepener & J. J. van Vuren, 2012. Aquatic invertebrate communities of perennial pans in Mpumalanga, South Africa: a diversity and functional approach. African Invertebrates 53(2): 751–768.Google Scholar
  94. Forero, D., 2008. The systematics of the Hemiptera. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia 34(1): 1–21.Google Scholar
  95. Forró, L., N. Korovchinsky, A. Kotov & A. Petrusek, 2008. Global diversity of cladocerans (Cladocera; Crustacea) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 177–184.Google Scholar
  96. Foster, L., W. Malherbe, M. Ferreira & J. J. van Vuren, 2015. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in North West and Mpumalanga provinces, South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 40(3): 287–297.Google Scholar
  97. Foster, G. N., D. T. Bilton & B. Nelson, 2016. Atlas of the Predaceous Water Beetles (Hydradephaga) of Britain and Ireland. Field Studies Council, UK.Google Scholar
  98. Frey, D., 1993. The penetration of cladocerans into saline waters. Hydrobiologia 267: 233–248.Google Scholar
  99. Frost, T. M., 1991. Porifera. In Thorpe, J. H. & A. P. Covich (eds), Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, New York: 95–124.Google Scholar
  100. Frouz, J., J. Matěna & A. Ali, 2003. Survival strategies of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) living in temporary habitats: a review. European Journal of Entomology 100(4): 459–466.Google Scholar
  101. Fryer, G., 1988. Studies on the functional morphology and biology of the Notostraca (Crustacea: Branchiopoda). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 321(1203): 27–124.Google Scholar
  102. Garey, J. R., S. J. McInnes & P. B. Nichols, 2008. Global diversity of tardigrades (Tardigrada) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 101–106.Google Scholar
  103. Gerecke, R., 2004. Taxonomy and phylogeny in African water mites of the genus Diplodontus Dugés, 1834 (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hydryphantidae). Annales de Limnologie-International Journal of Limnology 40(1): 71–85.Google Scholar
  104. Gillies, M., 1990. A revision of the African species of Centroptilum Eaton (Baetidae, Ephemeroptera). Aquatic Insects 12(2): 97–128.Google Scholar
  105. Godfray, H. C. J., 2002. Challenges for taxonomy. Nature 417(6884): 17–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Goldschmidt, T. & H. Smit, 2009. Studies on torrenticolid water mites mainly from South Africa-Torrenticola Piersig, 1896 and Monatractides K. Viets, 1926 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae). International Journal of Acarology 35(3): 179–234.Google Scholar
  107. Goudie, A. & G. Wells, 1995. The nature, distribution and formation of pans in arid zones. Earth-Science Reviews 38(1): 1–69.Google Scholar
  108. Gouws, G., B. A. Stewart & C. A. Matthee, 2005. Lack of taxonomic differentiation in an apparently widespread freshwater isopod morphotype (Phreatoicidea: Mesamphisopidae: Mesamphisopus) from South Africa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37(1): 289–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Grimaldi, D. & M. S. Engel, 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  110. Gueriau, P., N. Rabet, G. Clément, L. Lagebro, J. Vannier, D. E. Briggs, S. Charbonnier, S. Olive & O. Béthoux, 2016. A 365-million-year-old freshwater community reveals morphological and ecological stasis in branchiopod crustaceans. Current Biology 26(3): 383–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Hamer, M. L., 1989. Studies on the phyllopod fauna of ephemeral pools in north-eastern Natal. MSc thesis, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. 192 pp.Google Scholar
  112. Hamer, M., 1999. Anostraca. In Day, J., I. de Moor, B. Stewart & A. Louw (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 2: Crustacea I – Notostraca, Anostraca, Conchostraca and Cladocera. WRC Report No. TT 121/00, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 14–58.Google Scholar
  113. Hamer, M., 2013. A National Strategy for Zoological Taxonomy (2013-2020). South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria: 1–53.Google Scholar
  114. Hamer, M. & C. Appleton, 1991. Physical and chemical characteristics and phyllopod fauna of temporary pools in north-eastern Natal, Republic of South Africa. Hydrobiologia 212: 95–104.Google Scholar
  115. Hamer, M. & L. Brendonck, 1997. Distribution, diversity and conservation of Anostraca (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) in southern Africa. Hydrobiologia 359: 1–12.Google Scholar
  116. Hamer, M. & K. Martens, 1998. The large Branchiopoda (Crustacea) from temporary habitats of the Drakensberg region, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 384(1–3): 151–165.Google Scholar
  117. Hamer, M. & N. Rayner, 1995. A note on the taxonomy and distribution of Triops Schrank (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca) in southern Africa. Annals of the Natal Museum 36: 9–19.Google Scholar
  118. Hamer, M. & N. Rayner, 1996. A note on the unusual crustacean community of a temporary pool in the Northern Cape. Southern African Journal of Aquatic Science 22(1–2): 100–104.Google Scholar
  119. Hamer, M., L. Brendonck, A. Coomans & C. Appleton, 1994. A review of African Streptocephalidae (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca). Part 1: South of Zambezi and Kunene rivers. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 3(Suppl. 99 (Monographische Beiträge)): 235–277.Google Scholar
  120. Harris, P. M., B. R. Roosa & L. Norment, 2002. Underground dispersal by amphipods (Crangonyx pseudogracilis) between temporary ponds. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 17(4): 589–594.Google Scholar
  121. Harrison, A. D., 2002. Chironomidae. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the freshwater invertebrates of southern Africa, Vol. 9: Diptera. WRC Report No. TT 201/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  122. Hassall, C. & D. J. Thompson, 2008. The effects of environmental warming on Odonata: a review. International Journal of Odonatology 11(2): 131–153.Google Scholar
  123. Heeg, J., 2002a. Porifera. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol 5: Non-Arthropods, WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 59–73.Google Scholar
  124. Heeg, J., 2002b. Gastrotricha. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of southern Africa, Vol 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 166–172.Google Scholar
  125. Heeg, J., 2002c. Bryozoa. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 173–188.Google Scholar
  126. Heyns, J., 2002. Checklist of free living nematodes recorded from freshwater habitats in Southern Africa. Water SA 28(4): 449–456.Google Scholar
  127. Hinton, H. E., 1953. Some adaptations of insects to environments that are alternately dry and flooded, with some notes on the habits of the Stratiomyidae. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 11: 209–227.Google Scholar
  128. Hinton, H. E., 1960. A fly larva that tolerates dehydration and temperatures of − 270° to + 102° C. Nature 188: 336–337.Google Scholar
  129. Holsinger, J. R. & G. W. Dickson, 1977. Burrowing as a means of survival in the troglobitic amphipod crustacean Crangonyx antennatus Packard (Crangonyctidae). Hydrobiologia 54(3): 195–199.Google Scholar
  130. Horne, D. & K. Martens, 1998. An assessment of the importance of resting eggs for the evolutionary success of Mesozoic non-marine cypridoidean Ostracoda (Crustacea). Archiv für Hydrobiologie 52: 549–561.Google Scholar
  131. Houben, A. M., N. Van Steenkiste & T. Artois, 2014. Revision of Phaenocora Ehrenberg, 1836 (Rhabditophora, Typhloplanidae, Phaenocorinae) with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 3889(3): 301–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Hutchinson, G. E., 1933. The zoo-geography of the African aquatic Hemiptera in relation to past climatic change. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 28: 436–488.Google Scholar
  133. Hynes, H., 1955. Biological notes on some East African aquatic Heteroptera. Physiological Entomology 30(4–6): 43–54.Google Scholar
  134. Jäch, M. A. & M. Balke, 2008. Global diversity of water beetles (Coleoptera) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 419–442.Google Scholar
  135. Jannot, J. E., 2009. Life history plasticity and fitness in a caddisfly in response to proximate cues of pond-drying. Oecologia 161(2): 267–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Jannot, J. E., S. A. Wissinger & J. R. Lucas, 2008. Diet and a developmental time constraint alter life-history trade-offs in a caddis fly (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95(3): 495–504.Google Scholar
  137. Jansen van Rensburg, C., 1976. An identification key to the water mite families of the Ethiopian region. Journal of the Limnological Society of Southern Africa 2(1): 11–20.Google Scholar
  138. Jansen van Rensburg, C. & J. Day, 2002. Water mites In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of southern Africa, Vol. 6: Arachnida and Mollusca. WRC Report no. TT 182/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 23–41.Google Scholar
  139. Jeffries, M., 2005. Small ponds and big landscapes: the challenge of invertebrate spatial and temporal dynamics for European pond conservation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15(6): 541–547.Google Scholar
  140. Jocqué, M., K. Martens, B. Riddoch & L. Brendonck, 2006. Faunistics of ephemeral rock pools in southeastern Botswana. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 165(3): 415–431.Google Scholar
  141. Jocqué, M., L. Brendonck, B. J. Riddoch & K. Martens, 2010. On Amphibolocypris arida sp. nov. (Crustacea, Ostracoda), from rock pools in Botswana (southern Africa). Zootaxa 2408: 47–58.Google Scholar
  142. Johansson, F. & F. Suhling, 2004. Behaviour and growth of dragonfly larvae along a permanent to temporary water habitat gradient. Ecological Entomology 29(2): 196–202.Google Scholar
  143. Jones, M., 2002. Developing a classification system for Western Cape wetlands. MSc thesis, Zoology Department, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  144. Jupp, P., B. McIntosh & E. Nevill, 1980. A survey of the mosquito and Culicoides faunas at two localities in the Karoo region of South Africa with some observations of bionomics. The Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 47(1): 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Kaiser, H., A. Gordon & T. Paulet, 2006. Review of the African distribution of the brine shrimp genus Artemia. Water SA 32(4): 597–603.Google Scholar
  146. Kalkman, V. J., V. Clausnitzer, K.-D. B. Dijkstra, A. G. Orr, D. R. Paulson & J. van Tol, 2008. Global diversity of dragonflies (Odonata) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 351–363.Google Scholar
  147. Kipping, J., 2010. The dragonflies and damselflies of Botswana: an annotated checklist with notes on distribution, phenology, habitats and Red List status of the species (Insecta: Odonata). Mauritiana (Altenberg) 21: 126–204.Google Scholar
  148. Kneitel, J. M., 2016. Climate-driven habitat size determines the latitudinal diversity gradient in temporary ponds. Ecology 97(4): 961–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Korn, M. & A. K. Hundsdoerfer, 2006. Evidence for cryptic species in the tadpole shrimp Triops granarius (Lucas, 1864) (Crustacea: Notostraca). Zootaxa 1257: 57–68.Google Scholar
  150. Korovchinsky, N., 2006. The Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) as a relict group. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 147(1): 109–124.Google Scholar
  151. Kristensen, T. K., C. C. Appleton, B. Curtis & A.-S. Stensgaard, 2009. The status and distribution of freshwater molluscs. In Darwall, W., D. Tweddle, K. Smith & P. Skelton (eds), The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Southern Africa. IUCN, Gland: 38–47.Google Scholar
  152. Lahr, J., 1997. Ecotoxicology of organisms adapted to life in temporary freshwater ponds in arid and semi-arid regions. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 32(1): 50–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lahr, J., K. B. Ndour, A. Badji & P. S. Diouf, 1999. Phenology of invertebrates living in a sahelian temporary pond. Hydrobiologia 405: 189–205.Google Scholar
  154. Lund, J. O., S. A. Wissinger & B. L. Peckarsky, 2016. Caddisfly behavioral responses to drying cues in temporary ponds: implications for effects of climate change. Freshwater Science 35(2): 619–630.Google Scholar
  155. Manconi, R. & R. Pronzato, 2008. Global diversity of sponges (Porifera: Spongillina) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 27–33.Google Scholar
  156. Martens, K., 2001. Ostracoda. In Day, J., I. de Moor, B. Stewart & L. AE (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 3: Crustacea II – Ostracoda, Copepoda and Branchiura. WRC Report no. TT 148/01, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 78–123.Google Scholar
  157. Martens, K., 2003. On a remarkable South African giant ostracod (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from temporary pools, with additional appendages. Hydrobiologia 500: 115–130.Google Scholar
  158. Martens, K., 2007. On a new species and genus in the Cypridini (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Cyprididae) from South Africa, with a phylogenetic analysis of the tribe and a discussion on the genus concept in this group. Journal of Natural History 41(5–8): 381–399.Google Scholar
  159. Martens, K., B. Davies, A. Baxter & M. Meadows, 1996. A contribution to the taxonomy and ecology of the Ostracoda (Crustacea) from Verlorenvlei (Western Cape, South Africa). African Zoology 31(1): 23–36.Google Scholar
  160. Martens, K., M. Hamer & M. Coke, 1998. A preliminary account of the diversity of non-marine Ostracoda (Crustacea) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Lammergeyer 45: 17–31.Google Scholar
  161. Martens, A., R. Jödicke & F. Suhling, 2003. An annotated checklist of the Odonata of Namibia. Cimbebasia 18: 139–160.Google Scholar
  162. Martin, P., E. Martinez-Ansemil, A. Pinder, T. Timm & M. J. Wetzel, 2008. Global diversity of oligochaetous clitellates (“Oligochaeta”; Clitellata) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595(1): 117–127.Google Scholar
  163. Mathers, T. C., R. L. Hammond, R. A. Jenner, B. Hänfling & A. Gomez, 2013. Multiple global radiations in tadpole shrimps challenge the concept of ‘living fossils’. PeerJ 1: e62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. Matzke-Karasz, R. & K. Martens, 2007. On Afrocypris barnardi GO Sars, 1924 (Ostracoda), a second giant ostracode with additional appendages. Crustaceana 80(5): 603–623.Google Scholar
  165. McDermott, E. G. & B. A. Mullens, 2014. Desiccation tolerance in the eggs of the primary North American bluetongue virus vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), and implications for vector persistence. Journal of Medical Entomology 51(6): 1151–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. McKee, P. & G. Mackie, 1980. Desiccation resistance in Sphaerium occidentale and Musculium securis (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) from a temporary pond. Canadian Journal of Zoology 58(9): 1693–1696.Google Scholar
  167. Mckenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie & M. L. Jameson, 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40(4): 835–880.Google Scholar
  168. McLachlan, A. & M. Cantrell, 1980. Survival strategies in tropical rain pools. Oecologia 47(3): 344–351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. McLachlan, A. & R. Ladle, 2001. Life in the puddle: behavioural and life-cycle adaptations in the Diptera of tropical rain pools. Biological Reviews 76(3): 377–388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Meintjes, S., 1996. Seasonal changes in the invertebrate community of small shallow ephemeral pans at Bain’s Vlei, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 317(1): 51–64.Google Scholar
  171. Meyer, H. A. & J. G. Hinton, 2009. The Tardigrada of southern Africa, with the description of Minibiotus harrylewisi, a new species from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (Eutardigrada: Macrobiotidae). African Invertebrates 50(2): 255–268.Google Scholar
  172. Miller, J. R., J. Huang, J. Vulule & E. D. Walker, 2007. Life on the edge: African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae s.l.) larvae are amphibious. Naturwissenschaften 94(3): 195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Mlambo, M. C., M. S. Bird, C. C. Reed & J. A. Day, 2011. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate assemblages in the south-western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Aquatic Science 36(3): 299–308.Google Scholar
  174. Møbjerg, N., K. A. Halberg, A. Jørgensen, D. Persson, M. Bjørn, H. Ramløv & R. M. Kristensen, 2011. Survival in extreme environments–on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades. Acta Physiologica 202(3): 409–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Montalto, L. & M. Marchese, 2005. Cyst formation in Tubificidae (Naidinae) and Opistocystidae (Annelida, Oligochaeta) as an adaptive strategy for drought tolerance in fluvial wetlands of the Paraná River, Argentina. Wetlands 25(2): 488–494.Google Scholar
  176. Morse, J. C., 2011. The Trichoptera world checklist. Zoosymposia 5(1): 372–380.Google Scholar
  177. Newell, R. L. & B. R. Hossack, 2009. Large, wetland-associated mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Glacier National Park, Montana. Western North American Naturalist 69(3): 335–342.Google Scholar
  178. Nhiwatiwa, T. & T. Dalu, 2017. Seasonal variation in pans in relation to limno-chemistry, size, hydroperiod, and river connectivity in a semi-arid subtropical region. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 97: 37–45.Google Scholar
  179. Nhiwatiwa, T., L. Brendonck, A. Waterkeyn & B. Vanschoenwinkel, 2011. The importance of landscape and habitat properties in explaining instantaneous and long-term distributions of large branchiopods in subtropical temporary pans. Freshwater Biology 56(10): 1992–2008.Google Scholar
  180. Nhiwatiwa, T., A. Waterkeyn, B. Riddoch & L. Brendonck, 2014. A hotspot of large branchiopod diversity in south-eastern Zimbabwe. African Journal of Aquatic Science 39(1): 57–65.Google Scholar
  181. Nhiwatiwa, T., L. Brendonck & T. Dalu, 2017a. Understanding factors structuring zooplankton and macroinvertebrate assemblages in ephemeral pans. Limnologica-Ecology and Management of Inland Waters 64: 11–19.Google Scholar
  182. Nhiwatiwa, T., T. Dalu & L. Brendonck, 2017b. Streptocephalus sangoensis n. sp. (Anostraca, Streptocephalidae), a new large branchiopod species for southern Africa. Crustaceana 90(6): 673–683.Google Scholar
  183. Nicolet, P., J. Biggs, G. Fox, M. J. Hodson, C. Reynolds, M. Whitfield & P. Williams, 2004. The wetland plant and macroinvertebrate assemblages of temporary ponds in England and Wales. Biological Conservation 120: 261–278.Google Scholar
  184. Nilsson, A. N., 1986a. Life cycles and habitats of the northern European Agabini (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae). Entomologica Basiliensia 11: 391–417.Google Scholar
  185. Nilsson, A. N., 1986b. Larval morphology and phenology of four Fennoscandian species of Hydroporus Clairville (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), with a preliminary key to the known larvae. Aquatic Insects 8(3): 141–153.Google Scholar
  186. Nilsson, A. N., 1986c. Community structure in the Dytiscidae (Coleoptera) of a northern Swedish seasonal pond. Annales Zoologici Fennici 23(1): 39–47.Google Scholar
  187. Nolte, U., R. S. Tietböhl & W. P. McCafferty, 1996. A mayfly from tropical Brazil capable of tolerating short-term dehydration. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 15(1): 87–94.Google Scholar
  188. Noreña, C., F. Brusa & A. Faubel, 2003. Census of “Microturbellarians”(free-living Platyhelminthes) of the zoogeographical regions originating from Gondwana. Zootaxa 146(1): 34.Google Scholar
  189. Oosthuizen, J. & M. Siddall, 2002. Hirudinea. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 237–263.Google Scholar
  190. Paraense, W. L., 1996. Neotropical planorbid snails with apertural lamellae: I. Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835). Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 91(2): 177–186.Google Scholar
  191. Peer, N., R. Perissinotto, G. Gouws & N. A. Miranda, 2015. Description of a new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838, from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. Zookeys 503: 23–43.Google Scholar
  192. Perkins, P. D. & J. Balfour-Browne, 1994. A contribution to the taxonomy of aquatic and humicolous beetles of the family Hydraenidae in southern Africa. Fieldiana Zoology 77: 1–159.Google Scholar
  193. Pešić, V., D. Cook, R. Gerecke & H. Smit, 2013. The water mite family Mideopsidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia): a contribution to the diversity in the Afrotropical region and taxonomic changes above species level. Zootaxa 3720(1): 1–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Peters, J., 1972. The ecology of Tarn Dub. Vasculum 57: 42–50.Google Scholar
  195. Pinceel, T., B. Vanschoenwinkel, J. Uten & L. Brendonck, 2013. Mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of light-induced dormancy termination in a temporary pond crustacean. Freshwater Science 32(2): 517–524.Google Scholar
  196. Rayner, N. A., 1998. Paradiaptomus peninsularis, P. hameri and P. warreni, three new species of Paradiaptomus (Calanoida: Diaptomidae) from South Africa. Hydrobiologia 391(1–3): 87–98.Google Scholar
  197. Rayner, N., 1999. Notostraca. In Day, J., I. de Moor, B. Stewart & A. Louw (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 2: Crustacea I – Notostraca, Anostraca, Conchostraca and Cladocera. WRC Report no. TT 121/00, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 7–13.Google Scholar
  198. Rayner, N., 2000. Distribution and biogeography of the Paradiaptominae (Copepoda: Calanoida: Diaptomidae). African Journal of Aquatic Sciences 25(1): 93–97.Google Scholar
  199. Rayner, N., 2001. Copepoda. In Day, J., I. de Moor, B. A. Stewart & A. Louw (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates Of Southern Africa, Vol. 3: Crustacea II – Ostracoda, Copepoda and Branchiura. WRC Report No. TT 148/01, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 78–123.Google Scholar
  200. Rayner, N., 2002. Tardigrada Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 189–192.Google Scholar
  201. Rayner, N. & C. Appleton, 2002. Nematomorpha. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol 5: Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 162–165.Google Scholar
  202. Rayner, N. & J. Heeg, 1994. Distribution patterns of the Diaptomidae (Calanoida: Copepoda) in southern Africa. Hydrobiologia 272: 47–75.Google Scholar
  203. Rayner, N., C. Appleton & N. Millard, 2002. Cnidaria. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol 5. Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 74–87.Google Scholar
  204. Reavell, P., 2003. Hemiptera. In de Moor, I., J. Day & F. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa Volume 8: Insecta II Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. WRC Report No. TT 214/03, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 16–71.Google Scholar
  205. Rehn, A. C., 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of higher-level relationships of Odonata. Systematic Entomology 28(2): 181–240.Google Scholar
  206. Reid, J. & C. Williamson, 2010. Copepoda. In Thorp, J. & A. Covich (eds), Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, Cambridge: 915–954.Google Scholar
  207. Reynolds, J., 2000. Invertebrate communities of turloughs (temporary lakes) in southeast Galway, Ireland. Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie: Verhandlungen 27(3): 1679–1684.Google Scholar
  208. Riato, L., C. Van Ginkel & J. C. Taylor, 2014. Zooplankton and diatoms of temporary and permanent freshwater pans in the Mpumalanga Highveld region, South Africa. African Zoology 49(1): 113–127.Google Scholar
  209. Ribera, I. & M. Balke, 2007. Recognition of a species-poor, geographically restricted but morphologically diverse Cape lineage of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hyphydrini). Journal of Biogeography 34(7): 1220–1232.Google Scholar
  210. Ricci, C. & M. Balsamo, 2000. The biology and ecology of lotic rotifers and gastrotrichs. Freshwater Biology 44(1): 15–28.Google Scholar
  211. Robinson, C. & T. Buser, 2007. Density-dependent life history differences in a stream mayfly (Deleatidium) inhabiting permanent and intermittent stream reaches. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41(3): 265–271.Google Scholar
  212. Rogers, D., 2009. Branchiopoda (Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, Cyclestherida). Encyclopedia of inland waters 2: 242–249.Google Scholar
  213. Rogers, D. C., 2014. Larger hatching fractions in avian dispersed anostracan eggs (Branchiopoda). Journal of Crustacean Biology 34(2): 135–143.Google Scholar
  214. Rogers, D. C., 2015. A conceptual model for anostracan biogeography. Journal of Crustacean Biology 35(5): 686–699.Google Scholar
  215. Rogers, D. C., N. Rabet & S. C. Weeks, 2012. Revision of the extant genera of Limnadiidae (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata). Journal of Crustacean Biology 32(5): 827–842.Google Scholar
  216. Rogers, D. C., N. Rabet & S. C. Weeks, 2016. Gondwanalimnadia (Branchiopoda: Spinicaudata), replacement name for Afrolimnadia (Limnadiidae), junior homonym of Afrolimnadia (Lioestheriidae). Journal of Crustacean Biology 36(1): 105.Google Scholar
  217. Rubaba, O., M. Chimbari & S. Mukaratirwa, 2016. The role of snail aestivation in transmission of schistosomiasis in changing climatic conditions. African Journal of Aquatic Science 41(2): 143–150.Google Scholar
  218. Ruhí, A., D. Boix, S. Gascón, J. Sala & D. P. Batzer, 2013. Functional and phylogenetic relatedness in temporary wetland invertebrates: current macroecological patterns and implications for future climatic change scenarios. PLoS ONE 8(11): e81739.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. Sabatelli, S., P. Audisio, M. Trizzino & A. Di Giulio, 2013. Description of the larva of Ochthebius capicola (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae) from marine rockpools of South Africa. Zootaxa 3683(3): 280–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Sabatelli, S., P. Audisio, G. Antonini, E. Solano, A. Martinoli & M. Trizzino, 2016. Molecular ecology and phylogenetics of the water beetle genus Ochthebius revealed multiple independent shifts to marine rockpools lifestyle. Zoologica Scripta 45(2): 175–186.Google Scholar
  221. Samways, M., 1999. Diversity and conservation status of South African dragonflies (Odonata). Odonatologica 28(1): 13–62.Google Scholar
  222. Samways, M. J., 2004. Critical species of Odonata in southern Africa. International Journal of Odonatology 7(2): 255–262.Google Scholar
  223. Samways, M. J., 2008. Dragonflies and Damselflies of South Africa. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia.Google Scholar
  224. Samways, M. J., 2010. Extreme weather and climate change impacts on South African dragonflies. In Ott, J. (ed.), Monitoring Climate Change with Dragonflies. Pensoft, Sophia: 73–84.Google Scholar
  225. Samways, M. J. & J. P. Simaika, 2016. Manual of Freshwater Assessment for South Africa: Dragonfly Biotic Index. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  226. Sartori, M. & H. Barber-James, 2018. World checklist on Ephemeroptera. In: The Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (FADA) Belgium Updated February 2018.
  227. Schiel, F.-J. & R. Buchwald, 2015. Hatching phenology of Odonata species inhabiting temporary and permanent water bodies (Odonata: Lestidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae). International Journal of Odonatology 18(2): 105–123.Google Scholar
  228. Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. & R. Perissinotto, 2016. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa. Zookeys 566: 1–11.Google Scholar
  229. Scott, K. M. F., 1970. Some notes on the trichoptera of standing waters in Africa, mainly south of the Zambezi. Hydrobiologia 35(2): 177–195.Google Scholar
  230. Seaman, M., D. Kok, B. Von Schlichting & A. Kruger, 1991. Natural growth and reproduction in Triops granarius (Lucas) (Crustacea: Notostraca). Hydrobiologia 212: 87–94.Google Scholar
  231. Seaman, M., D. Kok & M. Watson, 1999. Cladocera. In Day, J., I. de Moor, B. Stewart & A. Louw (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 2: Crustacea I – Notostraca, Anostraca, Conchostraca and Cladocera. WRC Report No. TT 121/00, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 81–110.Google Scholar
  232. Semlitsch, R. D. & J. R. Bodie, 1998. Are small, isolated wetlands expendable? Conservation Biology 12(5): 1129–1133.Google Scholar
  233. Short, A. E. Z., 2018. Systematics of aquatic beetles (Coleoptera): current state and future directions. Systematic Entomology 43: 1–18.Google Scholar
  234. Short, A. E. & J. K. Liebherr, 2007. Systematics and biology of the endemic water scavenger beetles of Hawaii (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae, Hydrophilini). Systematic Entomology 32(4): 601–624.Google Scholar
  235. Silberbauer, M. J. & J. M. King, 1991. The distribution of wetlands in the south-western Cape Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Aquatic Science 17(1–2): 65–81.Google Scholar
  236. Simaika, J. P., M. J. Samways & P. P. Frenzel, 2016. Artificial ponds increase local dragonfly diversity in a global biodiversity hotspot. Biodiversity and Conservation 25(10): 1921–1935.Google Scholar
  237. Simovich, M. A. & S. A. Hathaway, 1997. Diversified bet-hedging as a reproductive strategy of some ephemeral pool anostracans (Branchiopoda). Journal of Crustacean Biology 17(1): 38–44.Google Scholar
  238. Smirnov, N., 2008. Check-list of the South-African Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda). Zootaxa 1788: 47–56.Google Scholar
  239. Smit, H., 2012. New records of the water mite family Arrenuridae from the Afrotropical region, with the description of 11 new species and two new subspecies (Acari: Hydrachnidia). Zootaxa 3187: 1–31.Google Scholar
  240. Spencer, M., S. S. Schwartz & L. Blaustein, 2002. Are there fine-scale spatial patterns in community similarity among temporary freshwater pools? Global Ecology and Biogeography 11(1): 71–78.Google Scholar
  241. Strachan, S. R., E. T. Chester & B. J. Robson, 2015. Freshwater invertebrate life history strategies for surviving desiccation. Springer Science Reviews 3(1): 57–75.Google Scholar
  242. Suárez-Morales, E. & N. A. Rayner, 2004. New records for the South African diaptomid fauna with a complementary description of Paradiaptomus lamellatus Sars (Copepoda, Diaptomidae). Journal of Natural History 38(22): 2803–2819.Google Scholar
  243. Suárez-Morales, E., R. Wasserman & T. Dalu, 2015. A new species of Lovenula Schmeil (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Crustaceana 88(3): 324–342.Google Scholar
  244. Suhling, F., R. Jödicke & W. Schneider, 2003. Odonata of African arid regions–are there desert species. Cimbebasia 18: 207–224.Google Scholar
  245. Suhling, F., G. Sahlén, J. Kasperski & D. Gaedecke, 2005. Behavioural and life history traits in temporary and perennial waters: comparisons among three pairs of sibling dragonfly species. Oikos 108(3): 609–617.Google Scholar
  246. Suhling, F., M. Samways, J. Simaika & J. Kipping, 2009. The status and distribution of dragonflies (Odonata). In Darwall, W., K. Smith, D. Tweddle & P. Skelton (eds), The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Southern Africa. IUCN, Gland/Cambridge: 48–65.Google Scholar
  247. Tawfik, M., 1969. Life-history of the giant water-bug, Lethocerus niloticus Stael (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae). Bulletin de la Société entomologique d’Egypte 53: 299–310.Google Scholar
  248. Tobias, D. & W. Tobias, 2008. Trichoptera africana [available on internet at].
  249. Todaro, M., R. Perissinotto & S. Bownes, 2013. Neogosseidae (Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida) from the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Zookeys 315: 77–94.Google Scholar
  250. Tuytens, K., B. Vanschoenwinkel, A. Waterkeyn & L. Brendonck, 2014. Predictions of climate change infer increased environmental harshness and altered connectivity in a cluster of temporary pools. Freshwater Biology 59(5): 955–968.Google Scholar
  251. Tuytens, K., B. Vanschoenwinkel, B. Clegg, T. Nhiwatiwa & L. Brendonck, 2015. Exploring links between geology, hydroperiod, and diversity and distribution patterns of anostracans and notostracans (Branchiopoda) in a tropical savannah habitat in SE Zimbabwe. Journal of Crustacean Biology 35(3): 309–318.Google Scholar
  252. Urban, M. C., 2004. Disturbance heterogeneity determines freshwater metacommunity structure. Ecology 85(11): 2971–2978.Google Scholar
  253. Van Damme, K. & H. J. Dumont, 1999. A drought-resistant larva of Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798)(Odonata: Libellulidae) in the Lençóis Maranhenses. NE-Brazil. International Journal of Odonatology 2(1): 69–76.Google Scholar
  254. Van Damme, K., E. I. Bekker & A. A. Kotov, 2013. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) of Southern Africa. Journal of Limnology 72(3): 440–463.Google Scholar
  255. van Hoven, W. & J. Day, 2002. Oligochaeta. In Day, J. & I. de Moor (eds) Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa, Vol. 5; Non-Arthropods. WRC Report No. TT 167/02, Water Research Commission, Pretoria: 203–236.Google Scholar
  256. Van Steenkiste, N., P. Davison & T. Artois, 2010. Bryoplana xerophila n.g.n. sp., a new limnoterrestrial microturbellarian (Platyhelminthes, Typhloplanidae, Protoplanellinae) from epilithic mosses, with notes on its ecology. Zoological Science 27(3): 285–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Vandekerkhove, J., G. Louette, L. Brendonck & L. De Meester, 2005. Development of cladoceran egg banks in new and isolated pools. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 162(3): 339–347.Google Scholar
  258. Vanschoenwinkel, B., C. De Vries, M. Seaman & L. Brendonck, 2007. The role of metacommunity processes in shaping invertebrate rock pool communities along a dispersal gradient. Oikos 116(8): 1255–1266.Google Scholar
  259. Vanschoenwinkel, B., S. Gielen, H. Vandewaerde, M. Seaman & L. Brendonck, 2008. Relative importance of different dispersal vectors for small aquatic invertebrates in a rock pool metacommunity. Ecography 31(5): 567–577.Google Scholar
  260. Vanschoenwinkel, B., S. Gielen, M. Seaman & L. Brendonck, 2009. Wind mediated dispersal of freshwater invertebrates in a rock pool metacommunity: differences in dispersal capacities and modes. Hydrobiologia 635(1): 363–372.Google Scholar
  261. Vanschoenwinkel, B., M. Seaman & L. Brendonck, 2010a. Hatching phenology, life history and egg bank size of fairy shrimp Branchipodopsis spp. (Branchiopoda, Crustacea) in relation to the ephemerality of their rock pool habitat. Aquatic Ecology 44(4): 771–780.Google Scholar
  262. Vanschoenwinkel, B., A. Waterkeyn, M. Jocqué, L. Boven, M. Seaman & L. Brendonck, 2010b. Species sorting in space and time-the impact of disturbance regime on community assembly in a temporary pool metacommunity. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 29(4): 1267–1278.Google Scholar
  263. Vanschoenwinkel, B., A. Waterkeyn, T. Nhiwatiwa, T. Pinceel, E. Spooren, A. Geerts, B. Clegg & L. Brendonck, 2011. Passive external transport of freshwater invertebrates by elephant and other mud-wallowing mammals in an African savannah habitat. Freshwater Biology 56(8): 1606–1619.Google Scholar
  264. Vanschoenwinkel, B., T. Pinceel, M. P. Vanhove, C. Denis, M. Jocque, B. V. Timms & L. Brendonck, 2012. Toward a global phylogeny of the “living fossil” crustacean order of the Notostraca. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34998.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  265. Vanschoenwinkel, B., F. Buschke & L. Brendonck, 2013. Disturbance regime alters the impact of dispersal on alpha and beta diversity in a natural metacommunity. Ecology 94(11): 2547–2557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Vera, C., P. Bremond, R. Labbo, F. Mouchet, E. Sellin, D. Boulanger, J. Pointier, B. Delay & B. Sellin, 1995. Seasonal fluctuations in population densities of Bulinus senegalensis and B. truncatus (Planorbidae) in temporary pools in a focus of Schistosoma haematobium in Niger: implications for control. Journal of Molluscan Studies 61(1): 79–88.Google Scholar
  267. Wasserman, R. J., M. E. Alexander, D. Barrios-O’Neill, O. L. Weyl & T. Dalu, 2016a. Using functional responses to assess predator hatching phenology implications for pioneering prey in arid temporary pools. Journal of Plankton Research 38(1): 154–158.Google Scholar
  268. Wasserman, R. J., M. E. Alexander, O. L. Weyl, D. Barrios-O’Neill, P. W. Froneman & T. Dalu, 2016b. Emergent effects of structural complexity and temperature on predator–prey interactions. Ecosphere 7(2): e01239.Google Scholar
  269. Wasserman, R. J., M. Weston, O. L. Weyl, P. W. Froneman, R. J. Welch, T. J. Vink & T. Dalu, 2018. Sacrificial males: the potential role of copulation and predation in contributing to copepod sex-skewed ratios. Oikos. Scholar
  270. Weir, J. S., 1966. Ecology and zoogeography of aquatic Hemiptera from temporary pools in Central Africa. Hydrobiologia 28(1): 123–128.Google Scholar
  271. Wharton, D. A., 2004. Survival strategies. In Gaugler, R. & A. L. Bilgrami (eds), Nematode Behaviour. CABI Publishing, Wallingford: 371–399.Google Scholar
  272. Wheeler, Q. D., P. H. Raven & E. O. Wilson, 2004. Taxonomy: impediment or expedient? Science 303(5656): 285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Wickson, S., E. Chester & B. Robson, 2012. Aestivation provides flexible mechanisms for survival of stream drying in a larval trichopteran (Leptoceridae). Marine and Freshwater Research 63(9): 821–826.Google Scholar
  274. Wiggins, G. B., 1973. Contribution to the biology of caddisflies (Trichoptera) in temporary pools. Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Contributions 88: 1–28.Google Scholar
  275. Wiggins, G. B., R. J. Mackay & I. M. Smith, 1980. Evolutionary and ecological strategies of animals in annual temporary pools. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 58(Suppl): 97–206.Google Scholar
  276. Williams, D. D., 1987. The Biology of Temporary Waters. Timber Press, Portland.Google Scholar
  277. Williams, D. D., 2006. The Biology of Temporary Waters. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  278. Wissinger, S., W. Brown & J. Jannot, 2003. Caddisfly life histories along permanence gradients in high-altitude wetlands in Colorado (USA). Freshwater Biology 48(2): 255–270.Google Scholar
  279. Wissinger, S., J. Steinmetz, J. S. Alexander & W. Brown, 2004a. Larval cannibalism, time constraints, and adult fitness in caddisflies that inhabit temporary wetlands. Oecologia 138(1): 39–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Wissinger, S. A., C. Eldermire & J. C. Whissel, 2004b. The role of larval cases in reducing aggression and cannibalism among caddisflies in temporary wetlands. Wetlands 24(4): 777–783.Google Scholar
  281. Wissinger, S. A., J. C. Whissel, C. Eldermire & W. S. Brown, 2006. Predator defense along a permanence gradient: roles of case structure, behavior, and developmental phenology in caddisflies. Oecologia 147(4): 667–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. Womersley, C. & C. Ching, 1989. Natural dehydration regimes as a prerequisite for the successful induction of anhydrobiosis in the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis. Journal of Experimental Biology 143(1): 359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Young, J. O., 1976. The freshwater Turbellaria of the African continent. Zoologischer Anzeiger 197: 419–432.Google Scholar
  284. Yozzo, D. & R. Diaz, 1999. Tidal freshwater wetlands: invertebrate diversity, ecology, and functional significance. In Batzer, D. P., R. B. Rader & S. A. Wissinger (eds), Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands of North America: Ecology and Management. Wiley, Hoboken: 889–918.Google Scholar
  285. Zamora-Muñoz, C. & B. Svensson, 1996. Survival of caddis larvae in relation to their case material in a group of temporary and permanent pools. Freshwater Biology 36(1): 23–31.Google Scholar
  286. Zawierucha, K., Ł. Michalczyk & Ł. Kaczmarek, 2012. The first record of Tardigrada from Zambia, with a description of Doryphoribius niedbalai n. sp. (Eutardigrada: Isohypsibiidae, the evelinae group). African Zoology 47(2): 275–284.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew S. Bird
    • 1
    Email author
  • Musa C. Mlambo
    • 2
  • Ryan J. Wasserman
    • 3
    • 4
  • Tatenda Dalu
    • 5
  • Alexandra J. Holland
    • 2
  • Jenny A. Day
    • 6
  • Martin H. Villet
    • 7
  • David T. Bilton
    • 1
    • 8
  • Helen M. Barber-James
    • 2
    • 7
  • Luc Brendonck
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of JohannesburgAuckland Park, JohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Freshwater InvertebratesAlbany Museum (a Rhodes University Affiliated Institution)GrahamstownSouth Africa
  3. 3.South African Institute for Aquatic BiodiversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Biological Sciences and BiotechnologyBotswana International University of Science and TechnologyPalapyeBotswana
  5. 5.Department of Ecology and Resource ManagementUniversity of VendaThohoyandouSouth Africa
  6. 6.Department of Earth Sciences, Institute of Water StudiesUniversity of the Western CapeBellville, Cape TownSouth Africa
  7. 7.Department of Zoology and EntomologyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  8. 8.Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological and Marine SciencesUniversity of PlymouthPlymouthUK
  9. 9.Animal Ecology, Global Change and Sustainable DevelopmentKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  10. 10.Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and ManagementNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations