Pathways of unauthorized fish introductions and types of management responses
- 161 Downloads
Unauthorized introductions are an ongoing problem for fisheries managers. To understand reasons for the continued spread of nonnative fish species, the pathways of nonnative fish introductions were analyzed from 1961 to 2017 in Wyoming, USA. Unauthorized introductions are those that occurred without oversight of a management agency. The largest source of unauthorized introductions was the deliberate, illegal release of fish by the public at 46% of the 215 introduction events. The next largest source was colonization of new water bodies after initial establishment at 29%. Inadvertent (accidental) stockings (8%) and unknown sources (17%) were the other pathways documented. Management responses consisted of attempts at complete eradication (9%), population reduction (10%), or containment (3%) although in the majority of introductions (79%) no action was taken. The introductions involved 49 taxa but three sport fish constituted 26.5% of all events: brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, walleye Sander vitreus, and yellow perch Perca flavescens. The prevalence of illegal introductions and the difficulty of eradicating introduced species indicate the continuing need for public education and enforcement efforts. The high frequency whereby species colonize new waterbodies indicates that fish introductions, even those authorized by management agencies, must consider the high probability that species will expand into unintended waterways.
KeywordsFish introduction Invasive species Invasion pathways Illegal introduction Unauthorized introductions
We thank the many fisheries biologists from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department whose field sampling provided data on the sources of fish introductions and subsequent management actions. William Bradshaw, Peter Cavalli, Matthew Hahn, Rob Gipson, Kenneth Kehmeier, Nick Hogberg, Paul Mavrakis, and Craig Amadio provided supplemental information. Mark Kirk, Bryan Maitland, Annika Walters, and three anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments on the manuscript.
- Baxter, G. T. & M. D. Stone, 1995. Fishes of Wyoming. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne.Google Scholar
- Bradshaw, W. H., 2006. Alpine Lakes Fisheries Surveys in the Cloud Peak Wilderness, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: 1987–1998. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Administrative Report SN00-01-8802. Cheyenne.Google Scholar
- Chapman D. C. & M. H. Hoff, 2011. Invasive Asian Carps in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 74, Bethesda: 163–174.Google Scholar
- Cooper, E. L., 1987. Carp in North America. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda.Google Scholar
- Diez, J. M., C. M. D’Antonio, J. S. Dukes, E. D. Grosholz, J. D. Olden, C. J. B. Sorte, D. M. Blumenthal, B. A. Bradley, R. Early, I. Ibáñez, S. J. Jones, J. J. Lawler & L. P. Miller, 2012. Will extreme climatic events facilitate biological invasions? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kolar, C. S., W. R. Courtenay, Jr. & L. G. Nico, 2010. Managing undesired and invading fishes. In: Hubert, W. A. & M. C. Quist (eds), Inland Fisheries Management in North America, 3rd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda: 213–259.Google Scholar
- Lever, C., 2011. Acclimatization Societies. In Simberloff, D. & M. Rejmánek (eds), Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley: 1–4.Google Scholar
- Mavrakis, P. H. & D. L. Yule, 1998. North Platte Comprehensive Fisheries Studies: Creel Survey and Stocking Evaluation, 1995–1996. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Fish Division, Cheyenne.Google Scholar
- Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, 2018a. Montana Fishing Regulations. http://fwp.mt.gov/fishing/regulations/. Accessed 9 March 2018.
- Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks, 2018b. Montana Field Guide – Cisco. http://fieldguide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=AFCHA01020. Accessed 8 March 2018.
- Nico, L. G., J. D. Williams & H. L. Jelks, 2005. Black Carp: Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment of an Introduced Fish. Special Publication 32. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
- Obrecht, J., 2004. Angler shatters flathead catfish record. Wyoming Wildlife News 14(1): 7. Published by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne.Google Scholar
- Olsen, D. M., 2014. Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus can enhance fisheries in reservoirs with trophic constraints. Master of Science Thesis, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.Google Scholar
- Peterson, D. P., K. D. Fausch, J. Watmough & R. A. Cunjak, 2008. When eradication is not an option, modeling strategies for electrofishing suppression of nonnative brook trout to foster persistence of sympatric native cutthroat trout in small streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28: 1847–1867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pratt, T. C., L. M. O’Connor, A. G. Hallett, R. L. McLaughlin, C. Katopodis, D. B. Hayes & R. A. Bergstedt, 2009. Balancing aquatic habitat fragmentation and control of invasive species: enhancing selective fish passage at sea lamprey control barriers. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138: 652–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rahel, F. J., 2004. Unauthorized fish introductions: fisheries management of the people, for the people, or by the people? In Nickum, M. J., P. M. Mazik, J. G. Nickum & D. D. MacKinlay (eds), Propagated Fishes in Resource Management, American Fisheries Society, Symposium 44. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda: 431–444.Google Scholar
- Remmick, R., 1982. Live bait can kill a fishery. Wyoming Wildlife 46: 30–31.Google Scholar
- Shafland, P. L., K. B. Gestring & M. S. Stanford, 2008. Florida’s exotic freshwater fishes – 2007. Florida Scientist 71: 220–245.Google Scholar
- Shepard, B., R. Spoon & L. Nelson, 2002. A native westslope cutthroat trout population responds positively after brook trout removal and habitat restoration. Intermountain Journal of Sciences 8: 191–211.Google Scholar
- Sigler, W. F. & J. W. Sigler, 1996. Fishes of Utah: A Natural History. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.Google Scholar
- Spratt, R. W., 1946. Rough and forage fish. State of Wyoming, Biennial Report of the Wyoming Game and Fish Commission, 1945–1946. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne: 3 p.Google Scholar
- Syslo, J. M., C. S. Guy, P. E. Bigelow, P. D. Doepke, B. D. Ertel & T. M. Koel, 2011. Response of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to 15 years of harvest in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68: 2132–2145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Trushenski, J., T. Flagg & C. Kohler, 2010. Use of hatchery fish for conservation, restoration, and enhancement of fisheries. In Hubert, W. A. & M. C. Quist (eds), Inland Fisheries Management in North America. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda: 261–293.Google Scholar
- U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Procedures for Stocking Nonnative Fish Species in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Denver.Google Scholar
- Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, 2018. Utah Fishing Guidebook. https://wildlife.utah.gov/guidebooks/2018_pdfs/2018_fishing.pdf. Accessed 9 March 2018.
- Williams, S., E. Winther & C. M. Barr. 2016. Report on the predation index, predator control fisheries, and program evaluation for the Columbia River basin northern pikeminnow sport reward program, 2016. Annual Report. Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. http://www.pikeminnow.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2016-Pikeminnow-AR.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2017.
- Wiltzius, W. J., 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872–1978. Division Report No. 12. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
- Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 1990. Annual Fisheries Progress Report on the 1990 Work Schedule. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Fish Division, Cheyenne.Google Scholar
- Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 2016. Annual Fisheries Progress Report on the 2016 Work Schedule. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Fish Division, Cheyenne.Google Scholar
- Wyoming Game and Fish Department, 2018. Wyoming Fishing Regulations 2018. https://wgfd.wyo.gov/regulations#Fish. Accessed 9 March 2018.