Native species may show invasiveness toward a recipient ecosystem through increases in abundance as a result of artificial stocking events. Salmonid species are typical examples of native invaders whose abundance is increased after stocking with hatchery fish. This study evaluated the effects of hatchery chum salmon fry on sympatric wild masu salmon fry, benthic invertebrate prey, and algae, after a single stocking event in Mamachi stream, Hokkaido, northern Japan. The results suggested that the stocked hatchery chum salmon fry decreased the foraging efficiency and growth of the wild masu salmon fry through interspecific competition, and depressed the abundance of Ephemerellidae and total grazer invertebrates (Glossosomatidae, Heptageniidae, and Baetidae) through predation. Also, the hatchery chum salmon fry may increase algal biomass through depression of grazer abundance by predation (top-down effect). These results suggested that a single release of hatchery chum salmon fry into a stream may influence the recipient stream ecosystem.
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We thank the staff of the Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute for helping with the field work, and Dr Yoshikazu Takashima for sorting and identifying benthic invertebrates. We are also grateful to Dr Todd Pearsons for his helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This study was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) Program (Grant No. JP16K07857) to KH.
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Hasegawa, K., Ohta, T. & Takahashi, S. Are hatchery chum salmon fry a native invader? Direct and indirect effects of stocking salmon fry on stream organisms. Hydrobiologia 806, 111–121 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3344-7
- Benthic invertebrates
- Masu salmon
- Top-down effect