Kettle holes are often abundant within agriculturally used moraine landscapes. They are highly enriched with nutrients and considered hotspots of carbon turnover. However, data on their primary productivity remain rare. We analysed two kettle holes typical to Germany with common aquatic plant communities during one year. We hypothesised that gross primary production (GPP) rates would be high compared to other temperate freshwater ecosystems, leading to high sediment deposition. Summer GPP rates (4.5–5.1 g C m−2 day−1) were higher than those of most temperate freshwater systems, but GPP rates were reduced by 90% in winter. Macrophytes dominated GPP from May to September with emergent macrophytes accounting for half of the GPP. Periphyton contributed to most of the system GPP throughout the rest of the year. Sediment deposition rates were high and correlated with GPP in one kettle hole. In contrast, due to prolonged periods of anoxia, aerobic sediment mineralisation was low while sediment phosphorus release was significant. Our results suggest that kettle holes have a high potential for carbon burial, provided they do not fully dry up during warm years. Due to their unique features, they should not be automatically grouped with ponds and shallow lakes in global carbon budget estimates.
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The authors would like to thank Thomas Hintze for technical help, Barbara Stein, Grit Siegert, Elke Zwirnmann, Antje Lüder, Hans-Jürgen Exner, Thomas Rossoll and Jörg Gelbrecht for help in laboratory analyses, Cécile Perillon for her contribution in the duckweed removal, and Iman Charara for her help with graphical software. We also thank Thomas Mehner and the students of the IGB course ‘Scientific Writing’ as well as Soren Brothers for their helpful remarks in improving this manuscript and the language check. This study was part of the LandScales (http://landscales.de) project that was funded through the Pact for Innovation and Research of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz association. The LandScales team is acknowledged for assistance and helpful discussions throughout the project. Lastly, we thank three anonymous reviewers and the editor Katya Kovalenko for their valuable comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.
Handling editor: Katya E. Kovalenko
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Kazanjian, G., Flury, S., Attermeyer, K. et al. Primary production in nutrient-rich kettle holes and consequences for nutrient and carbon cycling. Hydrobiologia 806, 77–93 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3337-6
- Gross primary production
- Depressional wetlands