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Chirocephalus sarpedonis sp. nov. (Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Chirocephalidae) from Turkey questions the monophyly of the traditional Chirocephalus species-groups

Abstract

Chirocephalus sarpedonis sp. nov. (Anostraca, Chirocephalidae), collected in a temporary pond in Lycia (Turkey), is described and its affinities with the other species of the genus are investigated based on both morphology and mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Male and female morphology suggests its major affinity with the species belonging to the bairdi-group although the morphological peculiarities of the species make it difficult to ascribe C. sarpedonis sp. nov. to any of the Chirocephalus species-groups which are currently used in the systematics of the genus. Furthermore, molecular analyses based on the comparison with available Chirocephalus spp. COI sequences fail to confirm the monophyly of the bairdi-group and exclude C. sarpedonis sp. nov. from the spinicaudatus-group also. We thus refrain from assigning the new species to any of the existing Chirocephalus species-groups and highlight the need for a revision of the affinities and phylogeny of the species currently ascribed to the genus. In particular, the traditional Chirocephalus species-groups seem to be defined based on few, sometimes shared, characters, so that the definition of a new grouping of the species based on a combined morphological and molecular approach is desirable.

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Acknowledgements

The friends and colleagues who provided comparative samples for our analyses are warmly acknowledged, i.e. Adam Petrusek and his family (Chirocephalus bairdi from Israel), and Fabio and Silvia Stoch (Chirocephalus croaticus from Slovenia). The authors are grateful to D. Christopher Rogers (University of Kansas, USA) and two anonymous referees, who provided useful and stimulating comments which allowed us to improve a first draft of the manuscript. Vezio Cottarelli acknowledges the support of Anna Rita Taddei and Gabriella Gambellini (Centro Interdipartimentale di Microscopia Elettronica, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy) for the support provided with the Scanning Electron Microscope. Federico Marrone acknowledges the support of Luca Vecchioni (University of Palermo, Italy) for the help provided with the assembling of the taxonomic plates.

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Correspondence to Federico Marrone.

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Guest editors: Federico Marrone, D. Christopher Rogers, Paola Zarattini & Luigi Naselli-Flores / New Challenges in Anostracan Research: a Tribute to Graziella Mura

Graziella Mura: Deceased on 23 March 2016.

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Cottarelli, V., Mura, G., Ippolito, G. et al. Chirocephalus sarpedonis sp. nov. (Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Chirocephalidae) from Turkey questions the monophyly of the traditional Chirocephalus species-groups. Hydrobiologia 801, 5–20 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3271-7

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Keywords

  • Molecular taxonomy
  • Anostracan phylogeny
  • Brood pouch morphology