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Chitosan-fabricated Ag nanoparticles and larvivorous fishes: a novel route to control the coastal malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus?

Abstract

Mosquitoes represent a key threat for millions of humans worldwide, since they act as vectors for malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, filariasis, and encephalitis. In this study, we tested chitosan-synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ch–AgNP) using male crab shells as a source of chitosan, which acted as a reducing and capping agent. Ch–AgNP were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD. Chitosan and Ch–AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus under laboratory and field conditions. Antibacterial properties of Ch–AgNP were tested on Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus vulgaris using the agar disk diffusion assay. The standard predation efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Carassius auratus in laboratory conditions was 60.80 (on larva II) and 19.68 individuals (on larva III) per day, while post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of Ch–AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 72.00 (on larva II) and 25.80 individuals (on larva III). Overall, Ch–AgNP fabricated using chitosan extracted from the male crab shells of the hydrothermal vent species Xenograpsus testudinatus may offer a novel and safer control strategy against A. sundaicus mosquito vectors, as well as against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the editor Veronica Ferreira and the two anonymous reviewers whose comments contributed to improve the manuscript. A. Jaganathan is grateful to the University Grant Commission (New Delhi, India), Project No. PDFSS-2014-15-SC-TAM-10125. The authors would like to thank the financial support rendered by King Saud University, through the Vice Deanship of Research Chairs. We are grateful for financial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan through the Grant No. MOST 104-2611-M-019-004, MOST 105-2621-M-019-001 and MOST 105-2918-I-019-001 to J.-S. Hwang as well as the Grant No. MOST 104-2811-M-019-005 and MOST 105-2811-M-019-008 to L.-C. Tseng.

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Correspondence to Giovanni Benelli or Jiang-Shiou Hwang.

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Handling editor: Verónica Jacinta Lopes Ferreira

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Murugan, K., Anitha, J., Suresh, U. et al. Chitosan-fabricated Ag nanoparticles and larvivorous fishes: a novel route to control the coastal malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus?. Hydrobiologia 797, 335–350 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3196-1

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Keywords

  • Anopheline
  • Biocontrol agent
  • Indoor residual spraying
  • Mosquito borne diseases
  • Nanosynthesis