Temporal genetic population structure and interannual variation in migration behavior of Pacific Lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus
Studies using neutral loci suggest that Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus, lack strong spatial genetic population structure. However, it is unknown whether temporal genetic population structure exists. We tested whether adult Pacific lamprey: (1) show temporal genetic population structure; and (2) migrate different distances between years. We non-lethally sampled lamprey for DNA in 2009 and 2010 and used eight microsatellite loci to test for genetic population structure. We used telemetry to record the migration behaviors of these fish. Lamprey were assignable to three moderately differentiated genetic clusters (F ST = 0.16–0.24 for all pairwise comparisons): one cluster was composed of individuals from 2009, and the other two contained individuals from 2010. The F ST value between years was 0.13 and between genetic clusters within 2010 was 0.20. A total of 372 (72.5%) fish were detected multiple times during their migrations. Most fish (69.9%) remained in the mainstem Willamette River; the remaining 30.1% migrated into tributaries. Eighty-two lamprey exhibited multiple back-and-forth movements among tributaries and the mainstem, which may indicate searching behaviors. All migration distances were significantly greater in 2010, when the amplitude of river discharge was greater. Our data suggest genetic structuring between and within years that may reflect different cohorts.
KeywordsPetromyzontiformes Temporal variation Anadromous Spawning migration
Funding was provided by the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission through the Columbia Basin Fish Accords partnership with the Bonneville Power Administration under project 2008-524-00 (Brian McIlraith, project manager). Flight surveys were funded by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. The project was also funded by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Tribal Wildlife Grant and the Administration for Native Americans to the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde. Shadia Duery provided significant assistance with the field research. Several individuals from the University of Idaho and Oregon State University provided technical assistance. L. Belonga, S. Starcevich, L. Schultz, and M. Falcy reviewed earlier drafts of this manuscript. Staff from Portland General Electric, Normandeau Associates, Inc., and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs assisted with collection and radio-tagging of lamprey. Use of equipment, supplies, or computer software does not constitute endorsement. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
- Clemens, B. J., C. B. Schreck, S. A. Sower & S. J. van de Wetering, 2016. The potential roles of river environments in selecting for stream- and ocean-maturing Pacific Lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus (Gairdner, 1836). In Orlov, A. M. & R. J. Beamish (eds.), Jawless fishes of the world. Chapman Hall, London: 299–322.Google Scholar
- Dawson, H., B. R. Quintella, P. R. Almeida, A. J. Treble & J. C. Jolley, 2015. The ecology of larval and metamorphosing lampreys. In Docker, M. F. (ed.), Lampreys: Biology, Conservation and Control, Vol. 1. Springer, New York: 75–138.Google Scholar
- Docker, M. F., J. B. Hume & P. J. Clemens, 2015. Introduction: a surfeit of lampreys. In Docker, M. F. (ed.), Lampreys: Biology, Conservation, and Control. Springer, Dordrecht: 1–34.Google Scholar
- Gilmore, S. A. 2004. Genetic assessment of adult mating success and accuracy of statolith aging in the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Master’s Thesis, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
- Goudet, J. & T. Jombart. 2015. hierfstat: estimation and tests of hierarchical F-statistics. R package version 0.04-22. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=hierfstat.
- Groot, C. & L. Margolis, 1991. Pacific Salmon Life Histories. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.Google Scholar
- Hendry, M. A., J. K. Wenburg, K. W. Myers & A. P. Hendry, 2002. Genetic and phenotypic variation through the migratory season provides evidence for multiple populations of wild steelhead in the Dean River, British Columbia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131: 418–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hendry, A. P., V. Castric, M. T. Kinnison & T. P. Quinn, 2004. The evolution of philopatry and dispersal: homing versus straying in salmonids. In Hendry, A. P. & S. C. Stearns (eds.), Evolution illuminated: salmon and their relatives. Oxford University Press, Oxford: 52–91.Google Scholar
- Hess, J. E., N. R. Campbell, M. F. Docker, C. Baker, A. Jackson, R. Lampman, B. McIlraith, M. L. Moser, D. P. Statler, W. P. Young, A. J. Wildbill & S. R. Narum, 2015. Use of genotyping by sequencing data to develop a high-throughput and multifunctional SNP panel for conservation applications in Pacific lamprey. Molecular Ecology Resources 15: 187–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- IDFG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game). 2011. The status of Pacific Lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in Idaho. Boise, Idaho. July 2011. https://collaboration.idfg.idaho.gov/FisheriesTechnicalReports/mgt999-040Grunder2011%20The%20Status%20of%20Pacific%20Lamprey.pdf Accessed August 2016.
- Johnson, N. S., T. J. Buchinger & W. Li, 2015. Reproductive ecology of lampreys. In Docker, M. F. (ed.), Lampreys: biology, conservation, and control. Springer, Dordrecht: 265–303.Google Scholar
- McKeown, B. A., 1984. Fish migration. Croom Helm, London.Google Scholar
- Moser, M. L., P. R. Almeida, P. S. Kemp & P. W. Sorensen, 2015. Lamprey spawning migration. In Docker, M. F. (ed.), Lampreys: Biology, Conservation, and Control. Springer, Dordrecht: 215–263.Google Scholar
- Quinn, T. P., 2005. The behavior and ecology of Pacific salmon and trout. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
- R Core Team. 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/.
- Robinson, T. C. & J. M. Bayer, 2005. Upstream migration of Pacific lampreys in the John Day River, Oregon: behavior, timing, and habitat use. Northwest Science 79: 106–119.Google Scholar
- Rougemont, Q., A. Gaigher, E. Lasne, J. Côte, M. Coke, A.-L. Besnard, S. Launey & G. Evanno, 2015. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation by European river and brook lampreys. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28: 2248–2263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scott, W. B. & E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada: Ottawa, Bulletin 184.Google Scholar
- Spice, E. K., T. A. Whitesel, C. T. McFarlane & M. F. Docker, 2011. Characterization of twelve microsatellite loci for the Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus (Petromyzontidae), and cross-amplification in five other lamprey species. Genetics and Molecular Research 10: 3246–3250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar