, Volume 788, Issue 1, pp 33–46 | Cite as

Phylogeny and phylogeography of the roaches, genus Rutilus (Cyprinidae), at the Eastern part of its range as inferred from mtDNA analysis

  • B. A. LevinEmail author
  • E. P. Simonov
  • O. A. Ermakov
  • M. A. Levina
  • E. A. Interesova
  • O. M. Kovalchuk
  • Y. A. Malinina
  • N. S. Mamilov
  • N. J. Mustafayev
  • D. V. Pilin
  • I. V. Pozdeev
  • N. I. Prostakov
  • H. R. Roubenyan
  • S. V. Titov
  • D. A. Vekhov
Primary Research Paper


The genus Rutilus is a widely distributed lineage of cyprinids and ranges from West Europe to East Siberia. Although matrilineal phylogeny and phylogeography of western species were already studied, roaches from remaining part of the range were not examined. Phylogenetic analysis based on cytochrome b sequences detected the following three major phylogenetic clades: (i) R. frisii, (ii) R. rutilus s. str., and (iii) group of six Ponto–Caspian taxa: R. caspicus, R. heckelii, R. rutilus aralensis, R. rutilus lacustris, R. schelkovnikovi, and R. stoumboudae. Our results suggest that these “species” within Ponto–Caspian clade could be a single species (R. lacustris by priority of description). The Ponto–Caspian clade is most widely distributed among others and covers the freshwaters from the Aegean Sea basin to Laptev Sea tributaries. Both R. rutilus s. str. and Ponto–Caspian clades sympatrically occur in Black Sea and Caspian Sea basins, Azov Sea itself, and even in drainage of White Sea. The vastest zone of contact (approximately 1700 km) was detected in the Volga basin. The spatial pattern of haplotype diversity and the shape of haplotype network argued for multiple refugia in Ponto–Caspian region as well as a rapid post-glacial colonization of Volga River and Siberia.


Cyprinidae Phylogeny Phylogeography Rutilus Contact zone Eurasia 



We are grateful to S.S. Alekseyev, A.A. Bolotovskiy, E.A. Borovikova, V.A. Chernyshov, Yu.V. Gerassimov, V.Y. Ilyin, A.P. Kalinin, A.V. Kozhara, M.P. Matwejev, A.E. Minin, D.D. Pavlov, O.A. Polumordvinov, A.A. Prokin, V.B. Salnikov, I.V. Shlyapkin, and I.S. Voroshilova for sharing of their samples. We are also thankful to N.G. Bogutskaya for providing the literature, to M. H. D. Larmuseau for providing of his unpublished cytb sequences to check some localities, and to N. S. Mugue for doing of first sequences in his lab. This study was supported by grant of the Russian Science Foundation, No. 15-14-10020 (sampling, molecular study, treatment of the results) and by grant of Ministry of Science and Education of Republic of Kazakhstan, №1380GF4 (sampling in Southern Kazakhstan). The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation provided additional funding to the Penza State University to conduct scientific activity in 2014–2016 (sampling and molecular study of the samples from the Penza Region).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Levin
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. P. Simonov
    • 1
    • 2
  • O. A. Ermakov
    • 3
  • M. A. Levina
    • 1
  • E. A. Interesova
    • 2
  • O. M. Kovalchuk
    • 4
  • Y. A. Malinina
    • 5
  • N. S. Mamilov
    • 6
  • N. J. Mustafayev
    • 7
  • D. V. Pilin
    • 8
  • I. V. Pozdeev
    • 9
  • N. I. Prostakov
    • 10
  • H. R. Roubenyan
    • 11
  • S. V. Titov
    • 3
  • D. A. Vekhov
    • 12
  1. 1.Papanin Institute of Biology of Inland WatersRussian Academy of SciencesBorokRussia
  2. 2.Tomsk State UniversityTomskRussia
  3. 3.Penza State UniversityPenzaRussia
  4. 4.Department of PaleontologyNational Museum of Natural History at the National Academy of Sciences of UkraineKievUkraine
  5. 5.State Research Institute of Lake and River FisheriesSaratov BranchRussia
  6. 6.Science Research Institute of Biology and BiotechnologyAl-Farabi Kazakh National UniversityAlma-AtaKazakhstan
  7. 7.Institute of ZoologyNational Academy of Sciences of AzerbaijanBakuAzerbaijan
  8. 8.Kazakh Research Institute of FisheryUralskKazakhstan
  9. 9.State Research Institute of Lake and River Fisheries (GosNIORKh)Perm BranchRussia
  10. 10.Voronezh State UniversityVoronezhRussia
  11. 11.Scientific Center of Zoology and HydroecologyNational Academy of Sciences of Republic of ArmeniaYerevanArmenia
  12. 12.State Research Institute of Lake and River Fisheries (GosNIORKh)Volgograd BranchRussia

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