Specifics and challenges of assessing exposure and effects of pesticides in small water bodies
- 949 Downloads
Small water bodies (SWB) are freshwater ecosystems of high ecological relevance. However, they receive considerably higher inputs of pesticides compared to larger water bodies owing to their close connection to adjacent agricultural fields in combination with their low water volume or discharge. Monitoring of the pesticide contamination of lentic and lotic SWB is a challenging task as various spatial and temporal factors affect pesticide’s maximum peak concentrations in the water bodies. We present an overview of the major challenges that can complicate the detection of exceedances of regulatory acceptable concentrations. Pesticide data from streams encompassed by the Danish pesticide monitoring program show that the highest pesticide concentrations are found in SWB. A ditch monitoring in a German orchard reveals that event-driven sampling following spray application outperforms the widely used automatic water sampling at fixed intervals, and we therefore suggest that the latter should replace the former in SWB. Furthermore, we suggest that gathering of quantitative data on pesticide pollution of lentic SWB should be given priority in future research.
KeywordsChemical and ecological status Pesticide monitoring Regulatory acceptable concentration Risk assessment
The authors thank Karin Fricke, Gerd Palm and Peter Quast for their assistance during field samplings in the German orchard region. We thank Gabriela Bischoff, Ina Stachewicz-Blum, Gabi Smykalla, Kerstin Jänicke, Hartmut Nowak, Frank Seefeld and Walter Tunkel for their help in sample preparation and pesticide analysis. We are also grateful to Anne Mette Poulsen from the Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, for linguistic assistance and three anonymous referees for very helpful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript.
- Altenfelder, S., U. Raabe & H. Albrecht, 2014. Effects of water regime and agricultural land use on diversity and species composition of vascular plants inhabiting temporary ponds in northeastern Germany. Tuexenia 34: 145–162.Google Scholar
- Barzman, M., P. Bàrberi, N. E. Birch, P. Boonekamp, S. Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, B. Graf, B. Hommel, J. E. Jensen, J. Kiss, P. Kudsk, J. R. Lamichhane, A. Messéan, A.-C. Moonen, A. Ratnadass, P. Ricci, J.-L. Sarah & M. Sattin, 2015. Eight principles of integrated pest management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 35: 1199–1215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berger, G., P. Pfeffer & T. Kalettka (eds), 2011. Amphibienschutz in kleingewässerreichen Ackerbaugebieten – Grundlagen, Konflikte, Lösungen. Natur & Text, Rangsdorf.Google Scholar
- Biggs, J., P. Nicolet, M. Mlinaric & T. Lalanne, 2014. Report of the Workshop on the Protection and Management of Small Water Bodies, Brussels, 14th November 2013. The European Environmental Bureau (EEB) and the Freshwater Habitats Trust: 23 p.Google Scholar
- Bischoff, G., M. Stähler, K. Ehlers & W. Pestemer, 2003. Biological-chemical monitoring in drainage ditches in the ‘Altes Land’ orchading region. Part 1: Application of plant protection products and residues of a.i. in surface water. In Del Re, A., E. Capri, L. Padovani & M. Trevisan (eds), Pesticide in air, plant, soil & water system. Proceedings of the 12. Symposium Pesticide Chemistry, Piacenza, Italia: 831–840.Google Scholar
- Clements, W. H., D. R. Kashian, P. M. Kiffney & R. E. Zuellig, 2015. Perspectives on the context-dependency of stream community responses to contaminants. Freshwater Biology. doi: 10.1111/fwb.12599.
- Davies, B. R., J. Biggs, P. J. Williams, J. T. Lee & S. Thompson, 2008b. A comparison of the catchment sizes of rivers, streams, ponds, ditches and lakes: implications for protecting aquatic biodiversity in an agricultural landscape. Hydrobiologia 597: 7–17.Google Scholar
- Downing, J. A., Y. T. Prairie, J. J. Cole, C. M. Duarte, L. J. Tranvik, R. G. Striegl, W. H. McDowell, P. Kortelainen, N. F. Caracao, J. M. Melack & J. J. Middelburg, 2006. The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. Limnology and Oceanography 51: 2388–2397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EC (European Commission), 2009. Directive 2009/128/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides.Google Scholar
- Globevnik, L., 2007. Briefing Small Water Bodies. Report of the European Environment Agency (No. EEA/ADS/06/001 – Water).Google Scholar
- Lewis, K. A., J. Tzilivakis, D. Warner & A. Green, 2016. An international database for pesticide risk assessments and management. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. doi: 10.1080/10807039.2015.1133242.
- Mills, G. A., A. Gravell, B. Vrana, C. Harman, H. Budzinski, N. Mazella & T. Ocelka, 2014. Measurement of environmental pollutants using passive sampling devices – an updated commentary on the current state of the art. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts 16: 369–373.Google Scholar
- Múrria, C., N. Bonada, M. A. Arnedo, N. Prat & A. P. Vogler, 2013. Higher β- and γ-diversity at species and genetic levels in headwaters than in mid-order streams in Hydropsyche (Trichoptera). Freshwater Biology 58: 2226–2236.Google Scholar
- Nanos, T., K. Boye & J. Kreuger, 2012. Results from the Environmental Monitoring of Pesticides (in Swedish). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.Google Scholar
- Oertli, B., D. A. Joye, N. Indermuehle, R. Juge & J.-B. Lachavanne, 2004. 1st European pond workshop ‘Conservation and monitoring of pond biodiversity’. Archives des Sciences 57: 69–71.Google Scholar
- Sanders, H. O., 1969. Toxicity of Pesticides to the Crustacean Gammarus lacustris. Technical Paper No. 25, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 18 pp.Google Scholar
- Sanders, H. O., 1972. Toxicity of Some Insecticides to Four Species of Malacostracan Crustaceans. Technical Paper No. 66, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, 19 pp.Google Scholar
- Schäfer, R. B., A. Paschke, B. Vrana, R. Mueller, & M. Liess, 2008. Performance of the Chemcatcher passive sampler when used to monitor 10 polar and semi-polar pesticides in 16 Central European streams, and comparison with two other sampling methods. Water Research 42: 2707–2717.Google Scholar
- Schäfer, R. B., P. J. van den Brink & M. Liess, 2011a. Impacts of Pesticides on Freshwater Ecosystems. In Sanchez-Bayo, F., P. van den Brink & R. M. Mann (eds), Ecological Impacts of Toxic Chemicals. Bentham, Bussum, NL: 111–137.Google Scholar
- Schulz, R. & M. Liess, 2000. Toxicity of fenvalerate to caddisfly larvae: chronic effects of 1- vs 10-h pulse-exposure with constant doses. Chemosphere 41: 1511–1517.Google Scholar
- Süß, A., G. Bischoff, A. C. W. Mueller & L. Buhr, 2006. Chemical and biological monitoring of the load of plant protection products and of zoocoenoses in ditches of the orchard region “Altes Land”. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes 58: 28–42.Google Scholar
- Thomson Reuters, 2015. 2015 Journal Citation Reports®.Google Scholar
- Ulrich, U., C. Krüger, G. Hörmann & N. Fohrer, 2015. Pesticide contamination of German small water bodies: a status report. Hydrologie und Wasserbewirtschaftung 59: 227–238.Google Scholar
- Van de Zande, J. C., H. A. J. Porskamp, J. M. G. P. Michielsen, H. J. Holterman & J. M. F. Huijsmans, 2000. Classification of spray applications for driftability, to protect surface water. Aspects of Applied Biology 57: 57–64.Google Scholar