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South American PSP toxin-producing Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) decreases clearance rates of cladocerans more than copepods

Abstract

Toxic effects of freshwater cyanobacteria on mesozooplankton partially depend on the feeding strategies, generalist (cladocera) or selective filter-feeders (copepod) and on the type of toxin. Blooms of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales) are increasingly more common in freshwaters. It can produce neurotoxins (paralytic shellfish poison, PSP), particularly in warm regions of the Americas. The knowledge about the effects of these neurotoxins on the clearance rate of zooplankton from warm regions still lags behind that of other world regions. We compared the toxin profile (using HPLC), morphology and growth rates of two PSP-producing C. raciborskii strains from South America. We evaluated the effect of these two strains on the clearance rate of two medium-sized grazers typical from subtropical and tropical environments, the copepod Notodiaptomus iheringi (~1.1 mm) and the cladoceran Daphnia pulex (~0.8 mm) in 2.5 h experiments. We found differences in the PSP profile, toxicity and morphology of the two C. raciborskii strains. Medium-sized predators were able to remove filaments of both strains in a similar amount despite their morphological and toxin differences. However, cladocera were significantly more affected than copepods in their clearance rates, suggesting differential consequences for their survival and success in warm freshwaters.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Iollanda Ivanov for her help during the copepod experiments, Ricardo Frederico Guedes de Souza for technical help with HPLC and Armando Vieira for kindly providing the strain of Chlamydomonas chlorastera used in this study. We thank Mathieu Cusson for his assistance with statistical analyses. This work was partially financed by PEDECIBA-Biología and CAP from Universidad de la República, and by the grant ANII-FCE6384.

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Correspondence to Amelia Fabre.

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Fabre, A., Lacerot, G., de Paiva, R.R. et al. South American PSP toxin-producing Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) decreases clearance rates of cladocerans more than copepods. Hydrobiologia 785, 61–69 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-016-2903-7

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Keywords

  • Ecotype
  • Nostocales
  • Predation
  • Paralytic shellfish toxins
  • Neurotoxin