Limited effect of gizzard sand on consumption of the macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum by the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis
- 209 Downloads
The sand stored in the gizzard of some freshwater snails should assist in the mechanical digestion of tough food, yet effects of gizzard sand on consumption of living macrophyte tissue are seldom addressed. We quantified the effects of gizzard sand both on consumption of plant tissue and on snail growth and reproduction with a cross-gradient, 28-day laboratory experiment. We offered apical shoot sections of Myriophyllum spicatum (initial ash content ~ 56%) or soft lettuce (ash content ~ 19%, as control) to Lymnaea stagnalis previously reared on sand or without sand. Gizzard sand had no effect on snail growth but sand-reared snails fed with lettuce initially produced more eggs than their no-sand counterparts. Snails fed M. spicatum exhibited stunted growth and produced only one small egg clutch. Shell height at time of first oviposition of M. spicatum-fed snails was two-thirds of that of lettuce-fed controls. Snails initially appeared to feed on periphyton and older, brownish M. spicatum leaflet tips, but later turned to midstem tissue. Fresh apices were not consumed. Gizzard sand had a limited effect on the ability of L. stagnalis to consume living M. spicatum, with apices likely defended chemically (polyphenols) and midstem tissue defended structurally (high ash content).
KeywordsSubmerged macrophytes Freshwater gastropods Herbivory Antiherbivore defenses
The experiment was carried out during PL’s four-month stay at the University of Konstanz, D, funded by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Auswärtiges Amt) and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) with a special Grant for University of L’Aquila researchers following the earthquake that hit L’Aquila on 6 April 2009. PL also extends her thanks to the Head of the Limnological Institute at the University of Konstanz, Dr. Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, and to the EMG lab staff for their warm hospitality in Konstanz. We are also indebted to Dr. F. Paolo Miccoli (University of L’Aquila) for his help in egg counting. Constructive criticism by the handling Editor, Dr. E.S. Bakker (NIOO-KNAW), by two anonymous reviewers, as well as by Dr. Miccoli and Ms. Marit Mjelde (NIVA) greatly improved the quality of our manuscript.
- Boggero, A., T. Bo, S. Zaupa & S. Fenoglio, 2014. Feeding on the roof of the world: the first gut content analysis of very high altitude Plecoptera. Entomologica Fennica 25: 220–224.Google Scholar
- Budha, P. B., J. Dutta & B. A. Daniel, 2010. Lymnaea stagnalis. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2010: e.T155475A4782225; http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T155475A4782225.en. Downloaded on 9 October 2015.
- Cohen, J., 1988. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
- Colton, H. S., 1908. Some effects of environment on the growth of Lymnaea columella Say. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 60: 410–448.Google Scholar
- Cooke, G.D., 2005. Macrophyte biomass control – Phytophagous insects, fish, and other biological controls. Chapter 17. In: Cooke, G. D., E. B. Welch, S. A. Peterson & S. A. Nichols (eds), Restoration and Management of Lakes and Reservoirs, 3rd ed. CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL: 425–458.Google Scholar
- Glöer, P. & C. Meier-Brook, 2003. Süsswassermollusken. Deutscher Jugendbund für Naturbeobachtung, Hamburg, D.Google Scholar
- Grace, J. B. & R. G. Wetzel, 1978. The production biology of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.): a review. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 16: 1–11.Google Scholar
- Gross, E. M., 2000. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of allelochemicals in the submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung für Angewandte und Theoretical Limnologie 27: 2116–2119.Google Scholar
- Gross, E. M. & R. Kornijów, 2002. Investigation on competitors and predators of herbivorous aquatic Lepidoptera (Acentria ephemerella) on submersed macrophytes in a large prealpine lake. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Angewandte und Theoretical Limnologie 28: 721–725.Google Scholar
- Hendricks, R. J. J., 2014. Impact of carbon and nitrogen availability on growth and palatability of the fresh water macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum. Chapter 5. In: Plants, invertebrate herbivores and nitrogen: ecological impacts of resource availability on trophic interactions. Doctoral Dissertation, Radboud University, Nijmegen, NL: 87–106. ISBN: 978-90-9028037-0. Available at http://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/122785 [last accessed: 2 May 2016].
- Hilt, S., E. M. Gross, M. Hupfer, H. Morscheid, J. Mählmann, A. Melzer, J. Poltz, S. Sandrock, E.-M. Scharf, S. Schneider & K. van de Weyer, 2006. Restoration of submerged vegetation in shallow eutrophic lakes – a guideline and state of the art in Germany. Limnologica 36: 155–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McDonald, S. L. C., 1969. The biology of Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Sterkiana 36: 1–17.Google Scholar
- Nichols, D., J. Cooke & D. Whiteley, 1971. The Oxford Book of Invertebrates. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
- Reavell, P. E., 1980. A study of the diets of some British freshwater gastropods. Journal of Conchology 30: 253–271.Google Scholar
- Rid, S., 2008. Herbivorie von Lymnaea stagnalis an Wasserpflanzen. Staatsexamensarbeit (report/thesis for final scientific internship as secondary school teacher). University of Konstanz, Konstanz.Google Scholar
- Soszka, G. J., 1975. Ecological relations between invertebrates and submerged macrophytes in the lake littoral. Ekologia Polska 23: 393–415.Google Scholar
- Storey, R., 1970. The importance of mineral particles in the diet of Lymnaea pereger (Müller). Journal of Conchology 27: 191–195.Google Scholar
- Thomas, J. D., D. I. Nwanko & P. R. Sterry, 1985. The feeding strategies of juvenile and adult Biomphalaria glabrata (Say) under simulated natural conditions and their relevance to ecological theory and snail control. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, series B 266: 177–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- von Ende, C., 2001. Repeated-measures analysis: growth and other time-dependent measures. In Scheiner, S. M. & J. Gurevitch (eds), Design and Analysis of Ecological Experiments, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York: 134–157.Google Scholar
- XLSTAT, 2015. Built-in user manual for XLSTAT Pro and associated modules. Addinsoft™ XLSTAT, Paris.Google Scholar
- Zar, J. H., 2009. Biostatistical Analysis, 5th ed. Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.Google Scholar